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Hair becomes oily over time thanks to sebum cheap 160mg super p-force oral jelly otc, a mixture of cholesterol purchase 160mg super p-force oral jelly overnight delivery, fats cheap super p-force oral jelly 160mg on line, and other substances secreted from a sebaceous (or holocrine) gland found next to each follicle. Attached to each follicle is a smooth muscle called an arrector pili (literally “raised hair”) that both applies pressure to the sebaceous gland and straight- ens the hair shaft, depressing the skin in a pattern called goose bumps or goose pimples. Each hair is made up of three concentric layers of keratinized cells: A central core, called the medulla, consists of large cells containing eleidin that are separated by air spaces; in fine hair, the medulla may be small or entirely absent. A cortex surrounding the medulla forms the major part of the hair shaft with sev- eral layers of flattened cells. The cortex also has elongated pigment-bearing cells in dark hair and air pockets in white hair. The outermost cuticle is a single layer of overlapping cells with the free end pointing upward. The cuticle strengthens and compacts the inner layers, but abrasion tends to wear away the end of the shaft, exposing the medulla and cortex in a pattern known as split ends. Nailing the fingers and toes Human nails (which actually are vestigial claws) have three parts: a root bed at the nail base, a body that’s attached to the fingertip, and a free edge that grows beyond the end of the finger or toe. Heavily cornified tissue forms the nails from modified strata corneum and lucidum. A narrow fold of the stratum corneum turns back to form the eponychium, or cuticle. At the base of the nail, partially tucked under the cuticle, the strata thicken to form a whitish area called the lunula (literally “little moon”) that can be seen through the nail. Beneath the lunula is the nail matrix, a region of thickened strata where mitosis pushes previously formed cornified cells forward, making the nail grow. Under the free edge of the nail, the stratum corneum thickens to form the hypony- chium. Nails are pinkish in color because of hemoglobin in the underlying capillaries, which are visible through the translucent cells of the nail. Nails function as an aid to grasping, as a tool for manipulating small objects, and as protection against trauma to the ends of fingers and toes. Sweating the details Humans perspire over nearly every inch of skin, but anyone with sweaty palms or smelly feet can attest to the fact that sweat glands are most numerous in the palms and soles, with the forehead running a close third. Both are coiled tubules embedded in the dermis or subcutaneous layer composed of simple columnar cells. Eccrine glands are distributed widely over the body — an average adult has roughly 3 million of them — and produce the watery, salty secretion you know as sweat. The sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system controls when and how much perspiration is secreted depending on how hot the body becomes. About 99 percent of eccrine-type sweat is water, but the remaining 1 percent is a mixture of sodium chlo- ride and other salts, uric acid, urea, amino acids, ammonia, sugar, lactic acid, and ascorbic acid. Apocrine sweat glands are located primarily in armpits (known as the axillary region) and the groin area. Usually associated with hair follicles, they produce a white, cloudy secretion that contains organic matter. Although apocrine-type sweat contains the same basic components as eccrine sweat and also is odorless when first secreted, bac- teria quickly begin to break down its additional fatty acids and proteins — explaining the post-exercise underarm stench. In addition to exercise, sexual and other emotional stimuli can cause contraction of cells around these glands, releasing sweat. Getting an earful The occasionally troublesome yellowish substance known as earwax is secreted in the outer part of the ear canal from modified sudoriferous glands called ceruminous glands (the Latin word cera means “wax”). Lying within the subcutaneous layer of the ear canal, these glands have ducts that either open directly into the ear canal or empty into the ducts of nearby sebaceous glands. Working with ear hairs, cerumen traps any foreign particles before they reach the eardrum. As the cerumen dries, it flakes and falls from the ear, carrying particles out of the ear canal. The muscle that straightens a hair and puts pressure on a gland causing it to secrete is the a. The bulb of the follicle of a hair contains epithelial cells (germinating cells) that are continu- ous with the a. This gland contains true sweat, fatty acids, and proteins, and acquires an unpleasant odor when bacteria breaks down the organic molecules it secretes. The gland that secretes an oily mixture of cholesterol, fats, and other substances into hair fol- licles to keep hair and skin soft, pliable, and waterproof is the a. Eccrine gland Chapter 7: It’s Skin Deep: The Integumentary System 125 Answers to Questions on the Skin The following are answers to the practice questions presented in this chapter. This layer also is called the stratum germinativum, but a simpler memory tool is simply to associate it with the “base” of the epidermis. Here’s a fun experiment: Turn off the lights, press your fingers together, and hold a flashlight under them. The description in this question sounds like a tough structure, so it may help you to remember that the reticular layer is what’s used to make leather from animal hides. Keratohyalin even- tually becomes keratin, so think of the layer where the cells are starting to die off. Reticular means net-like; it makes sense that this netting lies between the dermis and the hypodermis. Ever noticed how kids have more freckles at the end of a long summer spent outdoors? While it’s true that sev- eral different nerves are involved in the overall sense of touch, the Meissner’s are the most responsive to touch. Specific temperatures may seem tough to remember, but look at it this way: When it’s 45 degrees F, you definitely need a jacket. But when it’s 68 degrees F, you’ll want to carry a light jacket in case it gets colder. Recall that the prefix ep– refers to “upon” or “around,” whereas the prefix hypo– refers to “below” or “under. The Latin translation of this word is “small cavity” or “sac,” so it makes sense that this would be an origination place. This answer just means that your hair won’t turn orange, not necessarily that it will fall out of your scalp. Don’t forget, though, that this layer also is called the stratum basale, or base stratum. B This gland contains true sweat, fatty acids, and proteins, and acquires an unpleasant odor when bacteria breaks down the organic molecules it secretes. D The gland that secretes an oily mixture of cholesterol, fats, and other substances into hair follicles to keep hair and skin soft, pliable, and waterproof is the b. Each of the chapters in this part delves into a different major body system, starting with the respiratory system and what a few deep breaths can do for the human machine. Next up is the digestive system, fueling the system with food; you follow a mouthful of food from its entry in the mouth to expulsion of waste after every possi- ble nutrient has been wrung from it. We check in on the cir- culatory system and its blood-filled internal transit routes that carry both nutrients and oxygen to every nook and cranny of the body.

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Most often only one form shows correct physiological and pharmacolo- gical action buy super p-force oral jelly us. For example cheap 160mg super p-force oral jelly with visa, only one enantiomer of morphine is active as an analgesic 160mg super p-force oral jelly with visa, only one enantiomer of glucose is metabolized in our body to give energy and only one enantiomeric form of adrenaline is a neurotransmitter. Not only drug molecules, but also various other molecules that are essential for living organisms exist in stereoiso- meric forms, and their biological properties are often specific to one stereoisomer. Thus, it is important to understand stereochemistry for a better understanding of drug molecules, their action and toxicity. The (R)-form is completely inactive, although it is slowly converted in the body to the active (S)-form. The drug marketed under the trade names, commercially known as 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Advil , Anadin , Arthrofen , Brufen , Nurofen , Nuprin , Motrin etc. The drug, however, caused severe adverse effects on thousands of babies who were exposed to this drug while their mothers were pregnant. The drug caused 12 000 babies to be born with severe birth defects, including limb deformities such as missing or stunted limbs. Later, it was found that thalidomide molecule can exist in two stereoisomeric forms; one form is active as a sedative, but the other is responsible for its teratogenic activity (the harmful effect on the foetus). O O O * N N * O N H H N H O O O O H Sedative Teratogenic Thalidomide stereoisomers Limonene is a monoterpene that occurs in citrus fruits. Two enantiomers of limonene produce two distinct flavours: (À)-limonene is responsible for the flavour of lemons and (þ)-limonene for orange. Similarly, one enantiomeric form of carvone is the cause of caraway flavour, while the other enantiomer has the essence of spearmint. The pure S-enantiomer works remarkably well in the prevention of migraine and is now under clinical evaluation. In the absence of any chiral influence, the outcome of such reactions is the formation of a racemic form. For example, hydrogenation of ethylmethylketone yields a racemic mixture of 2-hydro- xybutane. To carry out an enantioselective reaction, a chiral reagent, solvent, or catalyst must assert an influence on the course of the reaction. In nature, most of the organic or bioorganic reactions are enantioselective, and the chiral influence generally comes from various enzymes. The active site in any enzyme is chiral, and allows only one enantiomeric form of a chiral reactant to fit in properly. Enzymes are also used to carry out enantioselective reactions in the laboratories. Lipase catalyses a reaction called hydrolysis, where esters react with a molecule of water and are converted to a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. The use of lipase allows the hydrolysis to be used to prepare almost pure enantiomers. Therefore, it is important to purify the racemic mixture so that active enantiomer can be obtained. The separation of a mixture of enantiomers is called the resolution of a racemic mixture. Through luck, in 1848, Louis Pasteur was able to separate or resolve racemic tartaric acid into its (þ) and (À) forms by crystallization. Two enantiomers of the sodium ammonium salt of tartaric acid give rise to two distinctly different types of chiral crystal that can then be separated easily. However, only a very few organic compounds crystallize into separate crystals (of two enantiomeric forms) that are visibly chiral as are the crystals of the sodium ammonium salt of tartaric acid. Therefore, Pasteur’s method of separation of enantiomers is not generally applicable to the separation of enantiomers. One of the current methods for resolution of enantiomers is the reaction of a racemic mixture with a single enantiomer of some other compound. An enzyme selectively converts one enantiomer in a racemic mixture to another compound, after which the unreacted enantiomer and the new compound are separated. Among the recent instrumental methods, chiral chromatography can be used to separate enantiomers. Diastereomeric interaction between molecules of the racemic mixture and the chiral chromatography medium causes enantiomers of the racemate to move through the stationary phase at different rates. When four different groups are situated around the central atom in silicon, germanium and nitrogen compounds, the molecules are chiral. Sulphoxides, where one of the four groups is a nonbonding electron pair, are also chiral. R' Chiral compounds with silicon, germanium, and nitrogen stereocentres Chiral sulphoxide 3. A tetrahedral atom with four different groups is just one of the factors that confer chirality on a molecule. There are a number of molecules where a tetrahedral atom with four different groups is not present, yet they are not superimposable, i. For example, 1,3-dichloroallene is a chiral molecule, but it does not have a tetrahedral atom with four different groups. H H H H C C C C C C Cl Cl Cl Cl 1,3-Dichloroallene An allene is a hydrocarbon in which one atom of carbon is connected by double bonds with two other atoms of carbon. This geometry of the p bonds causes the groups attached to the end carbon atoms to lie in perpendicular planes. Because of this geometry, allenes with different substitutents on the end carbon atoms are chiral. Chemistry for Pharmacy Students Satyajit D Sarker and Lutfun Nahar # 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Afunctional group is an atom or a group of atoms within a molecule that serves as a site of chemical reactivity. Carbon combines with other atoms such as H, N, O, S and halogens to form functional groups. A reaction is the process by which one compound is transformed into a new compound. It is important that you are able to recognize these functional groups because they dictate the physical, chemical and other properties of organic molecules, including various drug molecules. The most important functional groups are shown in the following table, with the key structural elements and a simple example. Where two R groups are shown in a single structure, they do not have to be the same, but they can be. All alkanes have the general molecular formula CnH2nþ2 and are called saturated hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds, and are also commonly referred to as aliphatic or acyclic alkanes (alkanes without rings). Thus, the alkane family is characterized by 3 the presence of tetrahedral carbon (sp ) atoms.

This fact is puzzling buy super p-force oral jelly overnight, in part because the number of left-handers is so low discount super p-force oral jelly 160mg otc, and in part because other animals discount 160 mg super p-force oral jelly mastercard, including our closest primate relatives, do not show any type of handedness. The existence of right-handers and left-handers provides an interesting example of the relationship among evolution, biology, and social factors and how the same phenomenon can be understood at different levels of analysis (Harris, [25] 1990; McManus, 2002). Ultrasound scans show that 9 out of 10 fetuses suck the thumb of [26] their right hand, suggesting that the preference is determined before birth (Hepper, Wells, & Lynch, 2005), and the [27] mechanism of transmission has been linked to a gene on the X chromosome (Jones & Martin, 2000). It has also been observed that left-handed people are likely to have fewer children, and this may be in part because the mothers of left-handers are more prone to miscarriages and other prenatal problems (McKeever, Cerone, Suter, & Wu, [28] 2000). In the past, left-handed children were forced to write with their right hands in many countries, and this practice continues, particularly in collectivistic cultures, such as India and Japan, where left- handedness is viewed negatively as compared with individualistic societies, such as the United States. For example, [29] India has about half as many left-handers as the United States (Ida & Mandal, 2003). There are both advantages and disadvantages to being left-handed in a world where most people are right-handed. This may explain in part why left-handers suffer [30] somewhat more accidents than do right-handers (Dutta & Mandal, 2006). Despite the potential difficulty living and working in a world designed for right-handers, there seem to be some advantages to being left-handed. Throughout history, a number of prominent artists have been left-handed, including Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Pablo Picasso, and Max Escher. Because the right hemisphere is superior in imaging and visual abilities, there may be some advantage to using the left hand for drawing or painting (Springer & [31] Deutsch, 1998). Left-handed people are also better at envisioning three-dimensional objects, which may explain why there is such a high number of left-handed architects, artists, and chess players in proportion to their numbers [32] (Coren, 1992). However, there are also more left-handers among those with reading disabilities, allergies, and [33] migraine headaches (Geschwind & Behan, 2007), perhaps due to the fact that a small minority of left-handers owe [34] their handedness to a birth trauma, such as being born prematurely (Betancur, Vélez, Cabanieu, & le Moal, 1990). In sports in which handedness may matter, such as tennis, boxing, fencing, or judo, left-handers may have an advantage. They play many games against right-handers and learn how to best handle their styles. Right-handers, however, play very few games against left-handers, which may make them more vulnerable. In other sports, such as golf, there are fewer left-handed players because the handedness of one player has no effect on the competition. The fact that left-handers excel in some sports suggests the possibility that they may have also had an evolutionary advantage because their ancestors may have been more successful in important skills such as hand-to-hand combat [35] (Bodmer & McKie, 1994). At this point, however, this idea remains only a hypothesis, and determinants of human handedness are yet to be fully understood. Other areas of the cortex act as association areas, responsible for integrating information. Body parts requiring the most control and dexterity take up the most space in the motor cortex. Body parts that are the most sensitive occupy the greatest amount of space in the sensory cortex. Consider your own experiences and speculate on which parts of your brain might be particularly well developed as a result of these experiences. Which brain hemisphere are you likely to be using when you search for a fork in the silverware drawer? Which brain hemisphere are you most likely to be using when you struggle to remember the name of an old friend? Do you think that encouraging left-handed children to use their right hands is a good idea? Long-term potentiation in the amygdala: A cellular mechanism of fear learning and memory. Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Self-stimulation of the brain: Its use to study local effects of hunger, sex, and drugs. Electric excitability of the cerebrum (Über die Elektrische erregbarkeit des Grosshirns). Extensive piano practicing has regionally specific effects on white matter development. From the left to the right: How the brain compensates progressive loss of language function. Observations on visual perception after disconnexion of the cerebral hemispheres in man. Processing of basic speech acts following localized brain damage: A new light on the neuroanatomy of language. Cultural influences on handedness: Historical and contemporary theory and evidence. Right hand, left hand: The origins of asymmetry in brains, bodies, atoms, and cultures. A note on Corballis (1997) and the genetics and evolution of handedness: Developing a unified distributional model from the sex-chromosomes gene hypothesis. Family size, miscarriage-proneness, and handedness: Tests of hypotheses of the developmental instability theory of handedness. Left-handedness: Association with immune disease, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Compare and contrast the techniques that scientists use to view and understand brain structures and functions. One problem in understanding the brain is that it is difficult to get a good picture of what is going on inside it. But there are a variety of empirical methods that allow scientists to look at brains in action, and the number of possibilities has increased dramatically in recent years with the introduction of new neuroimaging techniques. In this section we will consider the various techniques that psychologists use to learn about the brain. Each of the different techniques has some advantages, and when we put them together, we begin to get a relatively good picture of how the brain functions and which brain structures control which activities. Perhaps the most immediate approach to visualizing and understanding the structure of the brain is to directly analyze the brains of human cadavers. When Albert Einstein died in 1955, his brain [1] was removed and stored for later analysis. Researcher Marian Diamond (1999) later analyzed a section of the Einstein’s cortex to investigate its characteristics. Diamond was interested in the role of glia, and she hypothesized that the ratio of glial cells to neurons was an important determinant of intelligence.

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First purchase cheap super p-force oral jelly on line, as has been noted above order discount super p-force oral jelly on line, a developed society has an interest in documenting death investigation systems 45 the birth and death of its citizenry in order to provide for transfer of estates super p-force oral jelly 160 mg with visa, administration of societal programs, payment of insurance settlements, etc. Te tracking of deaths from an epidemiologic viewpoint allows for better public health surveillance in a society, be it related to epidemic diseases or public safety issues. As all purveyors of television crime dramas are well aware, adequate death investigation and certifcation is required for the criminal prosecution of deaths due to the action or inaction of another person or institution. And fnally, knowledge of the cause and manner of death is ofen of importance in allowing appropriate grieving and closure for the family and loved ones of a decedent. In most jurisdictions, deaths occurring solely by natural means may be certifed by attending physicians. However, deaths due to trauma, intoxica- tion, or unknown means usually fall under the jurisdiction of the medical examiner or coroner, and must be investigated and certifed by that ofce. In addition to the demographic documentation related to the decedent, such ofces must also attempt to determine the cause and manner of death. Tis is in distinction to the subsequent resultant physiologic derangements caused by this event. Tese derangements are ofen referred to as mechanisms of death or the immediate causes of death. For example, suppose an individual receives a gunshot wound that injures the spinal cord and renders the victim quadriplegic. If, years later, he or she succumbs to a urinary tract infection related to the paralytic bladder caused by the spinal cord injury, the cause of death should be appropri- ately certifed as a “gunshot wound of the back,” or “urosepsis complicat- ing quadriplegia due to gunshot wound of back. Te reasons for this are readily apparent, as most clinical physicians are concerned with diagnosing and treating acute conditions that can be ameliorated by medical or surgical therapy. Te medical examiner, however, recognizes that the purpose of death certifcation is to provide sta- tistical information on primary causes of death, and that the lapse of time between injury and death is of no importance in this documentation. Just as a clinical physician must take a medical his- tory prior to performing a physical examination, the medical examiner must have investigative information regarding the circumstances of death prior to reaching a conclusion. Review of past medical history, consideration of the presentation of the decedent at the time of death (sudden collapse, complaints of symptoms), and other factors are of equal importance to the autopsy and other examination techniques. It is for this reason that an adequate investiga- tive team is required to assist the medical examiner in gathering initial and follow-up information. Tere are degrees of uncertainty in any cause of death determination, and the degree of likelihood necessary to make a cause of death statement varies from case to case. It is a matter requiring considerable professional judgment and experience, and is very difcult to quantify in most cases. Te phrase “beyond a reasonable doubt” is a legal term referring to conclusions by a criminal trial judge or jury, but it has no place in the lexicon of the forensic pathologist. Instead, medical examiners are ofen asked to render their opin- ions to a “reasonable degree of medical probability. It is important to realize that cause of death statements by a medical examiner are opinions, resulting from consideration of myriad diferent factors and observations, generation of a diferential list of potentially fatal conditions or injuries, and selection of the most likely candidate(s) for cause of death from that list. When explaining this opinion to attorneys, families, juries, or any other group, the forensic pathologist must make every efort to convey any degree of uncertainty, to acknowledge other possible opinions, and to explain his or her rationale for selecting one over another. To simply state an opinion dogmatically, leaving no room for competing theories or argument, is incompatible with honest forensic medical practice. Paul Brouardel, a French physician of the late nineteenth century: “If the law has made you a witness, remain a man of science. However, it is incumbent on every practitioner to understand the limitations, degrees of uncertainty, and sometimes ambiguity of medico- legal opinions and to readily acknowledge them when appropriate. Sometimes a cause of death cannot be determined to a reasonable degree of probability. Tis may refect the fact that multiple possible causes of death are present, and one cannot readily be chosen over another. It may also refect death investigation systems 47 the fact that not every fatal condition has accompanying anatomic changes that can be discovered on autopsy examination. Te human body is in fact an electrochemical mechanism, and many fatal physiological processes are not associated with demonstrable anatomic alterations. When these processes cannot be inferred from historical or investigative information, the cause of death may remain undetermined. It is the mark of a good forensic pathologist that this conclusion is invoked whenever appropriate, without the attempt to form an unsupportable cause of death conclusion. Ostensibly, this is an attempt to classify the death as to the circumstances by which death came about; unfortunately, this classifcation is ofen problematic. Some jurisdictions also add additional categories, such as unclassifed, therapeutic misadventure, etc. Te idea of a manner of death classifcation is an American invention,31 and the manner of death categories available for use in death certifcation are promulgated by state vital records departments. Physicians, medical examiners, and coroners are bound to and limited by these available choices. Te problem with manner of death classifcation is that the “pigeonhol- ing” of complex and disparate deaths into one of fve (actually four) catego- ries is fraught with problems. One difculty in reproducibly assigning an appropriate manner of death category is the lack of agreement on defnitions for the classifcation terms. Te brief defnitions listed above are quite rudi- mentary and broad, and are subject to considerable and substantive variation in various jurisdictions. For example, a homicide is generally considered to be a death at the hands of another person, whereas suicide is death at one’s own hands. Yet a death due to a motor vehicle crash is generally classifed as an accident, regardless of whether one or both of the drivers were at fault or caused the crash. Others would consider it to be an accidental death since the hunter did not intend to kill a human being. Some jurisdictions require that intent to cause one’s own death be a factor in classifying a death as suicide. Others require only that the act leading to death be intentional, regardless of whether or not death was anticipated. Others would agree that the death represents a suicide, but largely because of the high inherent risk of the activity. Deaths due to acute intoxication by ethanol or other drugs are usually classifed as accidents unless suicidal intent is evident. But deaths due to the chronic efects of the same drugs (cirrhosis, endocarditis, etc. Tese are but a few of the inconsistencies and disagreements that may plague a manner of death determination. Subsequently, a panel discussion was convened at a meeting of the National Association of Medical Examiners in 1996 in which fve well-known and respected forensic pathologists discussed their opinions of the cases. Te degree of discordance was striking in both the survey and the subsequent panel discussion. Complete agreement was reached in only one case, and in some cases, the level of disagreement was such that no majority opinion was identifed. Tough it may be assumed that the use of a particular manner of death classifcation schema is based on consistent scientifc principles, it is in fact based more on local tradition and habit, and national consistency has proven to be an elusive goal. Another factor causing difculty in producing consistent manner of death classifcations is the exceptional complexity of various death processes.