By R. Norris. College of the Holy Cross.
It must be remembered that hanging can still be achieved discount 160 mg kamagra super mastercard, although is clearly more difficult buy cheap kamagra super 160 mg line, from a low suspension point discount 160 mg kamagra super with visa, and any protrusion from a wall or fitment in a cell can potentially be used as the upper attachment for the noose. In addition to removing the fixing points, attempts have been made to remove the items that have been used as nooses in the past and belts, shoelaces, etc. Paper clothing has been used, although this has not been entirely successful because it entails removing all of the individual’s clothing, which is clearly impractical in many cases and may raise problems with human rights. If made strong enough to withstand any degree of wear, the paper clothing would also be strong enough to act as a noose. Given the speed with which hanging can be effected, it is most unlikely that anything other than a permanent watch over the suicidal detainee would provide a foolproof method to prevent hanging in a cell. A cycle of 15-min- utes checks will allow more than ample time for an individual to hang himself or herself and cannot be considered to be adequate protection against this type of suicide. Ligature Strangulation Because the possibility of suspension is reduced by the changes in the design of the cells, the possibility of other forms of self-asphyxiation are likely to increase. Self-strangulation by ligature is considered to be possible but dif- ficult (14); because the pressure has to be applied to the neck in these cases by the conscious muscular effort of the hands and arms, it follows that when consciousness is lost and the muscular tone lessens, the pressure on the liga- ture will decrease, the airway obstruction and/or the vascular occlusion will cease, and death will generally be averted. However, if the ligature is knotted or if the material is “non-slip” and looped around itself, then it is possible for the individual to apply the pressure to the neck and for that pressure to be maintained even after consciousness is lost and, as a result, death may follow. As with hanging, the key to preventing these deaths lies in careful evalu- ation and, if necessary, the removal of clothing and observation. Incised Injuries All prisoners should be carefully searched before incarceration, and any sharp objects or objects that could be sharpened must be removed. The extent of the search will probably depend on the mental state of the individual, and the possibility of an intimate search to exclude weapons concealed in the vagina or rectum should be considered in those individuals who are considered most at risk. Even if the individual is found before death has occurred, the effects of pro- found blood loss may make death inevitable, despite resuscitation attempts. Drugs When considering the possibility of suicide using drugs while in police custody, the two key factors are, once again, evaluation and searching. Care- ful searching (possibly including intimate searches in some cases) will pre- vent the ingestion of drugs by an individual after he or she has been placed in Deaths in Custody 343 the cell. The forensic physician must always be aware of the possibility that excessive quantities of a drug or drugs were taken before arrest and detention and may exert their effect when the individual is in the cell. Definition The exact definition of this syndrome remains elusive, despite many publications apparently describing similar events (19,20). Indeed, the many different names given to these apparently similar conditions (Bell’s mania, agitated delirium, excited delirium, and acute exhaustive mania) throughout the years indicate that it is a syndrome that may have many different facets, not all of which may be present in any single case. However, all of these descriptions do comment on the high potential for sudden collapse and death while the individual is in the highly excited states that they all describe. It is now accepted that such syndromes do exist, and although it is now com- monly associated with use and abuse of cocaine (21), it is important to note that it was described in 1849 well before cocaine use and abuse became com- mon (19). Features The clinical features of excited delirium are generally accepted to be the following: • A state of high mental and physiological arousal. In addition to these clinical observable features, there will certainly also be significant physiological and biochemical sequelae, including dehydration, lactic acidosis, and increased catecholamine levels (22). These biochemical and physiological features may be such that they will render the individual at considerable risk from sudden cardiac arrest, and the descriptions of cases of individuals suffering from excited delirium (23) indicates that the sudden death is not uncommon. Shulack (23) also records that: “the end may come so sud- denly that the attending psychiatrist is left with a chagrined surprise,” and continues: “the puzzlement is intensified after the autopsy generally fails to disclose any findings which could explain the death. In the context of restraint associated with death in cases of excited delirium, the presence of injuries to the neck may lead to the conclusion that death resulted from asphyxia, but this interpretation needs careful evaluation. What is perhaps of greater importance is that in all of the cases described in the clinical literature (19,20,23–25), there has been a prolonged period of increasingly bizarre and aggressive behavior, often lasting days or weeks before admission to hospital and subsequent death. The clinical evidence avail- able for the deaths associated with police restraint indicates that although there may have been a period of disturbed behavior before restraint and death, the duration of the period will have been measured in hours and not days. This change in time scale may result from the different etiology of the cases of excited delirium now seen, and it is possible that the “natural” and the “cocaine-induced” types of excited delirium will have different time spans but a common final pathway. The conclusion that can be reached concerning individuals displaying the symptoms of excited delirium is that they clearly constitute a medical emergency. The police need to be aware of the symptoms of excited delirium and to understand that attempts at restraint are potentially dangerous and that forceful restraint should only be undertaken in circumstances where the indi- vidual is a serious risk to himself or herself or to other members of the public. Ideally, a person displaying these symptoms should be contained and a forensic physician should be called to examine him or her and to offer advice to the police at the scene. The possibility that the individual should be treated in situ by an emergency psychiatric team with resuscitation equipment and staff available needs to be discussed with the police, and, if such an emer- gency psychiatric team exists, this is probably the best and safest option. If such a team does not exist, then the individual will need to be restrained with as much care as possible and taken to the hospital emergency room for a full medical and psychiatric evaluation. These individuals should not be taken directly to a psychiatric unit where resuscitation skills and equipment may not be adequate. From consideration of the medical aspects of these deaths recorded in their report, it would appear that six of the deaths resulted from natural disease and four were related to drug use or abuse. Of the remaining six cases, one was associated with a baton blow to the head, two to asphyxiation resulting from pressure to the neck, two to “restraint asphyxia,” and one to a head injury. Therefore, in the deaths during the 7 years that this group considered, a total of four deaths (<1. However, the close association of these deaths with the actions of the police in restraining the individual raises questions about the pathologists’ con- clusions and their acceptance by the courts. It is common for several pathologi- cal opinions to be obtained in these cases; in a review of 12 in-custody deaths, an average of three opinions had been obtained (range 1–7) (27). Indeed, in one of the cases cited as being associated with police actions, seven pathological opinions were sought, yet only one opinion is quoted. This points to the consid- erable difficulty in determining the relative significance of several different and, at times, conflicting areas of medical evidence that are commonly present in these cases. The area of restraint that causes the most concern relates to asphyxiation during restraint. It has been known in forensic circles for many years that indi- viduals may asphyxiate if their ability to breathe is reduced by the position in which they are placed or into which they fall (Subheading 7. This type of asphyxiation is commonly associated with alcohol or drug intoxication or, rarely, with neurological diseases that prevent the individual from extract- ing themselves from a position that either partially or completely occludes their mouth and nose or limits the freedom of movement of the chest wall. Death resulting from these events has been described as postural asphyxia to indicate that it was the posture of the individual that resulted in the airway obstruction rather than the action of a third party. Reay concluded that positional restraint (hog-tieing) had “measurable physiological effects. This article raised 346 Shepherd the possibility that asphyxiation was occurring to individuals when they could not move themselves to safer positions because of the type of restraint used by the police. The concept of “restraint asphyxia,” albeit in a specific set of cir- cumstances, was born. Since the description of deaths in the prone hog-tied position, Reay’s original concepts have been extended to account for many deaths of indi- viduals simply under restraint but not in the hog-tied position. The term restraint asphyxia has been widened to account for these sudden and unex- pected deaths during restraint. Considerable pathological and physiological controversy exists regarding the exact effects of the prone position and hog- tieing in the normal effects upon respiration. Although the physiological controversy continues, it is clear to all those involved in the examination and investigation of these deaths that there is a small group of individuals who die suddenly and apparently without warning while being restrained.
For these viruses generic kamagra super 160mg free shipping, protein(s) normally present on the surface of the wild-type virus were also present in the viral vector particle discount kamagra super online mastercard. Thus discount 160 mg kamagra super with amex, the species and the cell types infected by these viral vectors remained the same as the wild-type virus from which they were derived. In speciﬁc cases, the tropism of the virus was modiﬁed by the surface expression of a protein from another virus, thus allowing it to bind and infect other cell types. The use of a protein from another virus to alter the tropism for a viral vector is referred to as pseudotyping. A number of viruses have been used to generate viral vectors for use in gene therapy. Characteristics of viral vectors that have been generated from these viruses are shown in Table 4. Important features that distinguish the different viral vectors include the size of the gene insert accepted, the duration of expression, target cell infectivity, and integration of the vector into the genome. A prop- erty that allowed for the initial isolation was the rapid induction of tumors in susceptible animals by the transfer of cellular oncogenes into cells. However, retro- viruses can also cause delayed malignancy due to insertional activation of a down- stream oncogene or inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene. Retroviruses are classiﬁed into seven distinct genera based on features such as envelope nucleotide structure, nucleocapsid morphology, virion assembly mode, and nucleotide sequence. The envelope contains a virus-encoded glycoprotein that speciﬁes the host range or types of cells that can be infected by binding to a cellular receptor. The envelope protein promotes fusion with a cellular membrane on either the cell surface or in an endosomal compartment. The 15-kD matrix protein associates closely with the membrane and is essential for budding of the viral particle from the membrane. This precursor is only 5% as abundant as the Gag pre- cursor and is produced by translational read-through of the gag termination codon. This contributes to poor infec- tivity of viral preparations and instability to manipulations such as concentration by ultracentrifugation. Envelope proteins from different retroviruses, or even from viruses of other families, can be used to produce infectious particles with altered tropism and/or greater stability. Genetic sequences are needed in cis to develop a provirus that can transfer genetic information into a target cell. Four important sequences are required in cis for replication and infection in the context of gene therapy. They initiate transcription at the 5¢ end, perform polyadenylation at the 3¢ end, and inte- grate a precise viral genome into a random site of the host cell chromosome by virtue of the att sites at either end. Although integration is a highly speciﬁc process for viral sequences, integration into the host chromosome appears to be random. Subsequent studies demonstrated that inclusion of some gag sequences (the extended packaging signal) greatly increased the titer of the vector produced. It is, however, possible to remove the coding sequences from the retroviral genome and replace them with a therapeutic gene to create a retroviral vector. The deletion of viral coding sequences from the retroviral vector makes it necessary to express these genes in trans in a packaging cell line. Packaging cell lines that sta- billy express the gag, pro, pol, and env genes have been generated. The transfer of a plasmid encoding the retroviral vector sequence into packaging cell results in a retroviral particle capable of transferring genetic information into a cell (assuming appropriate tropism). However, upon transfer of the retroviral vector into a cell, infectious particles are not produced because the packaging genes necessary for syn- thesizing the viral proteins are not present. Commonly used retroviral vectors and their salient features are summarized in Table 4. The therapeutic gene is cloned into a vector using standard molecular biology techniques. To circumvent this problem, most cell lines used in animals are infected with the vector rather than transfected. This involves transfection into one packaging cell line, which produces a vector that can infect a packaging cell line with a different envelope gene. The infected packaging cell line generally contains a few copies of the retroviral vector integrated into different sites as a provirus. N2 was the ﬁrst vector using an extended packaging signal that, as noted earlier, greatly increased the titer of vector produced. This mutation prevents potentially immunogenic gag peptides from being expressed on the surface of a transduced cell. In addition, it decreases the pos- sibility that a recombination event would result in replication-competent virus since the recombinant mutant would not translate the gag gene into a protein. The retroviral packaging genes gag, pro, pol, and env code for proteins that are necessary for producing a viral particle. Retroviral vectors have deleted the retroviral coding sequences and replaced them with a promoter and therapeutic gene. The retroviral vector alone cannot produce a retroviral particle because the retroviral coding sequences are not present. These packaging genes, need to be present in a packaging cell line along with the vector in order to produce a retroviral particle that can transfer genetic information into a new cell. Packaging Cells Lines Commonly used packaging cell lines are summarized in Table 4. These lines occasionally gen- erated replication-competent virus due to homologous recombination between the vector and the packaging constructs. Development of replication-competent virus is a serious concern since it leads to ongoing infection in vivo and ultimately may cause malignant transformation via insertional mutagenesis. This decreases the chance of transcriptional activation of a downstream oncogene after transduction of a cell. One strat- egy is to separate the packaging genes into two plasmids integrated into different chromosomal locations. Another strategy is to minimize homology between the vector and packaging sequences. Some packaging systems use transient transfection to produce high titers of retroviral vector for a relatively short period of time for use in animal experimentation. Recently developed packaging cell lines are of human origin and are advanta- geous. The presence of human antibodies in human serum results in rapid lysis of retroviral vectors packaged in murine cell lines. The antibodies are directed against the a-galactosyl carbohydrate moiety present on the glycoproteins of murine but not human cells.
While research on this is still in its early stages order kamagra super 160mg on-line, doing so appears to double or even triple success rates purchase kamagra super in united states online. When you need to relax purchase kamagra super with a mastercard, perform deep breathing exercises rather than reaching for a cigarette. Buy yourself something with the money you’ve saved, or plan a special reward as a celebration for quitting. The Importance of Regular Exercise Regular physical exercise is obviously vital to good health. While the immediate effect of exercise is stress on the body, with regular exercise the body adapts—it becomes stronger, functions more efﬁciently, and has greater endurance. The entire body beneﬁts from regular exercise, largely as a result of improved cardiovascular and respiratory function. Exercise enhances the transport of oxygen and nutrients into cells at the same time as it enhances the transport of carbon dioxide and other waste products out of cells. This is especially true for children—research indicates that childhood obesity is associated more with inactivity than with overeating. If you are not active yourself, make a change and get active, especially if you have weight to lose. Adults who are physically active tend to have less of a problem with weight loss for the following reasons: • When weight loss is achieved by dieting without exercise, a substantial portion of the total weight loss comes from the lean tissue, primarily as water loss. Muscle tissue is the primary user of fat calories in the body, so the greater your muscle mass, the greater your fat-burning capacity. Tension, restlessness, depression, feelings of inadequacy, and worrying diminish greatly with regular exercise. Exercise alone has been demonstrated to have a tremendous impact on improving mood and the ability to handle stressful life situations. There is a clear association between exercise and endorphin elevation, and when endorphins go up, mood follows. Most studies have showed that someone who is not ﬁt has an eightfold greater risk of having a heart attack or stroke than a physically ﬁt individual. Researchers have estimated that for every hour of exercise, there is a two-hour increase in longevity. The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study involved 9,777 men ranging in age from 20 to 82 who had completed at least two preventive medical examinations (on average 4. All study subjects achieved at least 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate (220 minus their age) during the treadmill tests at both exams. The men were further categorized by their level of ﬁtness based on their exercise tolerance on a standard treadmill test. This measure is a sound objective indicator of physical ﬁtness, as it has been shown to correlate positively with maximal oxygen uptake. The men were divided into ﬁve groups, with the ﬁrst group categorized as unﬁt and groups two through ﬁve being categorized as fit. The highest age-adjusted death rate (all causes) was observed in men who were unﬁt at both exams (122. Furthermore, men who improved from unﬁt to ﬁt between the ﬁrst and subsequent examinations had an age-adjusted death rate of 67. Improvement in ﬁtness was associated with lower death rates after adjusting for age, health status, and other risk factors for premature mortality. For each 1-minute increase in exercise tolerance between examinations, there was a corresponding 7. To help you develop a successful exercise program, here are seven steps to follow. Step 1: Realize the Importance of Physical Exercise The ﬁrst step is realizing just how important it is to get regular exercise. We cannot stress enough how vital regular exercise is to your health, but what we say means absolutely nothing unless it really sinks in and you accept it as well. Step 2: Consult Your Physician If you are not currently on a regular exercise program, get medical clearance if you have health problems or if you are over 40. Exercise can be quite harmful (and even fatal) if your heart is not able to meet the increased demands placed on it. It is especially important to see a physician if any of the following applies to you: Heart disease Smoking High blood pressure Extreme breathlessness with physical exertion Pain or pressure in chest, arm, teeth, jaw, or neck with exercise Dizziness or fainting Abnormal heart action (palpitations or irregular beat) Step 3: Select an Activity You Can Enjoy If you are healthy enough to begin an exercise program, select an activity that you feel you would enjoy. Make a commitment to do one activity a day for at least 20 minutes and preferably 1 hour. The important thing is to move your body enough to raise your pulse a bit above its resting rate. Try: Bicycling Bowling Dancing Gardening Golfing Heavy housecleaning Jazzercise Jogging Stair climbing Stationary bike Swimming Tennis Treadmill Walking Weight lifting The best exercises are the kind that elevate your heart rate the most. Aerobic activities such as walking briskly, jogging, bicycling, cross-country skiing, swimming, aerobic dance, and racquet sports are good examples. Brisk walking (5 miles an hour) for approximately 30 minutes may be the very best form of exercise for weight loss. Walking can be done anywhere; it requires no expensive equipment, just comfortable clothing and well-fitting shoes; and the risk for injury is extremely low. If you are going to walk on a regular basis, we strongly urge you to purchase a pair of high-quality walking or jogging shoes. Step 4: Monitor Exercise Intensity Exercise intensity is determined by measuring your heart rate (the number of times your heart beats per minute). This can be determined quickly by placing the index and middle ﬁngers of one hand on the side of the neck just below the angle of the jaw or on the opposite wrist. To determine the bottom of the training zone, simply subtract 20 from this number. Step 5: Do It Often You don’t get in good physical condition by exercising once; you have to do it on a regular basis. A minimum of 15 to 20 minutes of exercising at your training heart rate at least three times a week is necessary to gain any significant cardiovascular benefits from exercise. Step 6: Make It Fun The key to getting the maximum benefit from exercise is to make it enjoyable. If you can find enjoyment in exercise, you are much more likely to exercise regularly. For example, if you choose walking as your activity, ﬁnd one or two people in your neighborhood you would enjoy walking with. An added plus is that if you have plans to walk together, you will be more likely to actually get out there than if you depended solely on your own willpower. Commit to walking three to ﬁve mornings or afternoons each week, and increase the exercise duration from an initial 10 minutes to at least 30 minutes. Step 7: Stay Motivated No matter how committed you are to regular exercise, at some point in time you are going to be faced with a loss of enthusiasm for working out.