By M. Dimitar. Emporia State University. 2019.
Now cheap 100 mg doxycycline with amex, the standard solution is placed in one clear-glass-tube order doxycycline with mastercard, whereas an equal volume of the solution in question (unknown) in the other ; bearing in mind the fact that the clear-glass-tubes should never be filled above their respective shoulders buy doxycycline 200 mg without a prescription. The various components of a Duboscq Colorimeter are as follows : A = Clear glass tube with opaque bottom, B = Glass plungers fitted with opaque sleeves, and C = Eye piece. Perform at least five similar adjustments with the clear-glass- tube (A) containing the standard solution, and calculate the mean value. Care should always be taken that the plungers (B) always remain below the surface of the liquid. However, it is advised to visualize the match- point from above and below : Assuming Beer’s Law holds good the concentration of the solution in question (unknown) may be determined by the help of the following expression : cl11 = cl22 (known) (unknown) cl1 1 or c2 =... Nephelometer The most important characteristic feature of a nephelometer is the ‘reflector’ that has been specifi- cally designed so as to collect the light which has undergone scattering by the particles present in a turbid or cloudy solution. The test solution (sample) is placed in a test tube (F) that has been duly rested on a light source (A) as exhibited in Figure 20. The scattered light caused by the particles in a turbid or cloudy solution is immedi- ately directed by the reflector (E) on to an annular photocell (D). A series of standard colour filters are usually provided in the form of a filter-wheel (C) so as to facilitate analysis of coloured solutions ; taking care that the filter chosen must be similar to colour to that of the solution. The test tube is provided with a metallic cover (G) to get rid of any extraneous light. Usually a nephelometer is provided with zero-setting controls, sensitivity adjusting device and a set of previ- ously matched test tubes. However, the use of the blue filter normally enhances the sensitivity appreciably. It has been observed that the light transmitted by a turbid solution does not normally obey the Beer-Lambert Law accurately and pre- cisely. Therefore, as an usual practice it is advisable to construct a ‘calibration curve’ by employing several standard solutions. The concentration of the unknown solution may be read off directly from the above calibra- tion curve as is done in the case of colorimetric assays. The assay methods of these two techniques shall be discussed briefly below with the help of appropriate examples : 20. Assay of Chloretracycline Theory : Inoculate a medium consisting of : peptone : 6 g, beef extract : 1. The micro-organisms must exhibit a sensitivity to the antibiotic under investigation to such an extent that a sufficiently large inhibition of growth takes place in the prevailing conditions of the test. In actual practice, it is always advisable that the inoculated medium should be used immediately after its preparation. It is also advisable to use doses in logarithmic progression in a parallel line assay. Prepare at the same time two control tubes without the chlortetracycline, one containing the inoculated medium and the other identical with it but treated immediately with 0. Place all the tubes, randomly distributed, in a water-bath or other suitable means of bringing all the tubes rapidly to 35-37 °C i. Note : (a) Rectilinearity* of the dose-response relationship, transformed or untransformed, is often obtained only over a very limited range. It is this range that must be used in calculating the activity and it must include at least three consecutive doses in order to permit rectilinearity to be verified, (b) Use in each assay the number of replications per dose sufficient to ensure the required precision. The assay may be repeated and the results combined statistically to obtain the required precision and to ascertain whether the potency of the antibiotic being examined is not less than the minimum required. Antibiotic Micro-organism Medium Phosphate Potency of Incubation Final pH Buffer pH Solution Temperature U per ml (°C) 1. Permit each flask to stand for 2-3 minutes and read out the turbidity in the nephelometer, Caution : Avoid any tiny air-bubbles sticking to the inner walls of the matched test-tubes. Insert the Blank solution in the nephelometer and adjust to zero reading of the scale by the aid of zero-control-knob, 8. Check the reading of the most-turbid-solution, and adjust any deviation from 100 by means of the sensitivity control, 9. Extra care must be taken for not agitating the precipitate so as to avoid agglomeration of the same quickly. Likewise, temperature variation should also be avoided as far as possible because the precipitate is somewhat sensitive. Molybdate-strychnine reagent is prepared by dissolving solution-B shaking the resulting mixture vig- orously. The bluish-white precipitate thus obtained is filtered through What man No : 42 filter paper and the resulting clear solution may be used within 20 hours. Saturated Sodium Sulphate Solution : A saturated aqueous solution of sodium sulphate is prepared at 50 °C, cooled to room temperature and filtered before use. The contents of the flask is mixed by gently inverting it a number of times, but without shaking vigorously. Keep the flasks aside for at least 20 minutes so as to allow the turbidities to develop before making the measurements. A ‘blank’ solution is prepared by performing the above operations sequentially, but without the addition of the phosphate solution. By employing the most concentrated solution as the initial standard, adjust the microammeter reading to 100 divisions. Place the ‘blank’ solution into the matched test-tube of the nephelometer and adjust the reading to zero. Check the reading of the most turbid solution, and adjust any deviation from 100 by the help of the sensitivity control. Unknown Solution : Determine the phosphate content of an unknown solution, for example : containing 0. Describe the under mentional analytical instruments with the help of a neat diagram and working modalities : (a) Duboscq colorimeter, (b) Nephelometer, and (c) Photoelectric colorimeter. How would you accomplish the ‘turbidimetric assay’ of the following medicinal compounds : (i) Chlortetracycline, (ii) Doxycycline, (ii) Gentamycin, and (iv) Tobramycin. Comparatively older methods of analysis, such as colorimetry is entirely based upon the interaction of specifically visible light with a sample. In this particular instance, just the visible portion of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum within the range of 400 and 700 nanometers (nm) to which a human eye is sensitive, has been employed. In a situation whereby the sample is made to interact with a wide spectrum of wavelengths in a given zone of electromagnetic radiation, consequently giving rise to a collection of measurement signals as a function of wavelength is termed as a spectrum, ultimately putting forward the most common terminology spectrochemical analysis or spectroscopy. However, the relationship between wavelength and frequency may be expressed as follows : ν = c/λ... The radiant power of a beam is designated by its intensity of radiation, which in turn is directly proportional to the number of photons per second that are propagated in the beam. Monochromatic Beam : A beam that carries radiation of only one distinctly separate wave length is known as monochromatic. Polychromatic or Heterochromatic : A beam that carries radiation of several wavelengths is termed as polychromatic or heterochromatic. Considering the example for ethylene two situations arise, namely : (a) Ground State : Here, both π electrons are in the π orbital.
Data collection time points on these graphs are separated from each other by approximately 20 minutes discount doxycycline online master card. Following injection of the agent generic 200mg doxycycline with visa, four additional whole-body images purchase doxycycline overnight delivery, each requiring 20 minutes of data acquisition, were collected. Plots of Hydrochalarone-1 concentrations (arbitrary units), calculated from image intensity versus time curves for liver, kidney, and heart are shown below the images [Fig. These experiments demonstrate that Hydrochalarones appear to have “stealth” properties in which rapid clearance mechanisms are not triggered. These are desirable properties, which provide a platform to develop targeting species for clinical diagnosis and disease management. Data provided in the literature originally suggested good poten- tial of gadofullerene derivatives as contrast agents. These are desirable properties for the development of Hydrochalarones as imaging agent platforms upon which can be attached a broad range of targeting species for improved clinical diagnosis and management of a number of diseases. Nephrogenic systemic ﬁbrosis: Suspected causative role of gadodiamide used for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Dissociation of gadolinium chelates in mice: Rela- tionship to chemical characteristics. Synthesis and solvent enhanced relaxation property of water- soluble endohedral metallofullerenes. Proton relaxation times in paramagnetic solutions: Effects of electron relaxation. Hydrochalarones: A novel endohedral met- allofullerene platform for enhancing magnetic resonance imaging contrast. Holloway Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U. Across the electromagnetic spectrum, these techniques span from ultrasound to X-rays to gamma rays. They differ in terms of sensitivity, resolu- tion, complexity, acquisition time, and operational cost. There are several reviews on the physical basis of these techniques (1,2), instrumentation (3,4), and issues that affect their performance (5,6). Currently, a signiﬁcant amount of research is aimed at using the unique optical properties of quantum dots (Qdots) in biological imag- ing. Much of optical bioimaging is based on traditional dyes (7,8), but there are several drawbacks associated with their use. It is well known that cell autoﬂuores- cence in the visible spectrum (9) leads to the following ﬁve effects: (i) The autoﬂu- orescence can mask signals from labeled organic dye molecules. Inorganic Qdots are more photostable under ultraviolet excitation than organic molecules, and their ﬂuores- cence is more saturated. Qdots have been synthesized by different bottom-up chemical methods, such as 349 350 Bera et al. For the production of highly crystalline, monodispersed Qdots, the hot solution decomposition method is the best method known to date. To convert Qdots from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, a silica shell is generally grown on the Qdots. Several review articles and book chapters (23–27) can be found with elaborate discussions on Qdots. The excited quantum states often lie in the conduction band, which is empty, or in the energy gap between the valence and conduction bands called the band gap. Therefore, unlike metallic mate- rials, small continuous changes in electron energy within the semiconductor valence band are not possible. Instead a minimum energy is necessary to excite an electron in a semiconductor, and the energy released by de-excitation is often nearly equal to the band gap (28). When a semiconductor absorbs a photon, an electron may be excited to a higher energy quantum state. Sometimes, one or more species are intentionally incorporated to the semiconductor. These impurities are called activators and they perturbed the band structure by creating local quantum states that may lie within the band gap (30). The predominant radiative mechanism in extrinsic luminescence is electron– hole recombination, which can occur via transitions between conduction band to acceptor state, donor state to valance band, or donor state to acceptor state. Nanostructured semiconductors Qdots have dimensions and numbers of atoms between the atomic-molecular level and bulk materials. Qdots have a band gap that depends on a complicated fashion upon a number of factors, including size of particle, bond type, and bond strength (23). Generally, a Qdot is composed of approximately 100 to 10,000 atoms (1–30 nm), and has optical properties distinct from its bulk counterpart (Fig. These are often described as artiﬁcial atoms due to their -function–like density of states, which can lead to narrow optical line spectra with a very small Stoke’s shift. This leads to the electronic states with wave func- tions that are more atomic-like. As the solutions for Schrodinger wave equation for¨ Qdots are very similar to those for electrons bound to a nucleus, Qdots are called artiﬁcial atom. The most fascinating properties of Qdots are the drastic dependence in the optical absorption, exciton energies, and electron–hole pair recombination upon the size of Qdots. The dependence arises mainly from quantum conﬁnement effect, a unique property of the Qdots (23). A blue shift (increase) of the band gap energy is observed when the Qdot diam- eter is reduced. This effect allows tuning of the energy gap by changing the size of the Qdots, while maintaining a narrow emission (full width half maximum of ∼10–20 nm) (17). To achieve emis- sion of a particular color from a Qdot requires sufﬁcient control during its synthesis because intrinsic properties are determined by factors such as size, shape, defect, impurities, and crystallinity. Therefore, surface modiﬁcation of Qdots is very important for their biological appli- cation. Capping is generally carried out by incorporating an organic or inorganic layer onto the Qdots. Only a partial passivation of the Qdot surface can be achieved by incorporating select polymers onto the Qdots. Some advantages of organic cap- ping layers include simultaneous achievement of colloidal suspension capping and the ability to bio-conjugate the Qdots. An energy diagram shows the band-gap difference (Eg) of core and shell of inorganically passivated Qdots. For inorganic passivation, a material with a larger band gap is grown either epitaxially (crystalline) or as a nonepitaxial crystalline or amorphous layer on the core [Fig. Silica-Coated Qdots As mentioned earlier, Qdots are often synthesized in nonpolar, nonaqueous sol- vents, leaving them hydrophobic. In addition, except for some oxide-based Qdots, which are assumed to be lesser toxic, most of the Qdots contain toxic ions [e. Furthermore, functionalization of Qdots is very important for biological application. Aqueous-based synthesis methods generally are used to produce silica-capped Qdots (35).
Hepatic and renal conversion of hydroxyurea by a cytochrome c-dependent pathway to urea may account for 30–50% of administered doses discount 100mg doxycycline fast delivery. Both high and low doses show log-linear excretion kinetics doxycycline 200mg mastercard, reflecting the predom- inance of renal mechanisms buy doxycycline canada. The excretion of doses of 10–35 mg/kg bw diverges from linearity, probably because of an increasingly important saturable non-renal metabolic pathway (Villani et al. The lack of data may be due to the lack of a suitably sensitive assay during the early development of the drug (Donehower, 1992). In rhesus monkeys given 100 mg/kg bw per day intra- venously on days 23–32 of gestation, the half-time was 120 min after the last injection in the mothers and 265 min in their fetuses. Drug-induced dermopathy with characteristics of dermatomyositis have been reported (Richard et al. When very high doses are given intravenously, dose-related mucositis is seen (Gandhi et al. Five case reports involved exposure to hydroxyurea for periods ranging from seven months to four years before pregnancy and throughout gestation at doses of 0. One woman developed eclampsia at 26 weeks and delivered a stillborn but phenotypically normal infant (Delmer et al. The other four pregnancies ended in four normal, healthy infants at 36–40 weeks of gestation, with normal blood counts and normal postnatal development up to a maximum of 32 months (Patel et al. Three other cases have been reported: one woman received a single dose of 8 g of hydroxyurea at about 12 weeks of pregnancy and had an elective termination four weeks later of an apparently normal fetus (Doney et al. Another woman was treated with an unspecified dose of hydroxyurea for six months before pregnancy and from mid-second trimester to near term, and delivered a healthy infant who developed normally during one year of follow- up (Fitzgerald & McCann, 1993). The third case involved a woman who had been treated with an unspecified dose of hydroxyurea two years before conception. She deliv- ered a normal infant, who had normal physical and mental development at seven years of age (Pajor et al. The cytotoxicity could be partially prevented by simul- taneous injection of 700 mg/kg bw deoxycytidine monophosphate (Herken, 1984) and completely prevented by simultaneous injection of 1 mg/kg bw colchicine (Herken, 1985). A dose-related increase in the frequency of multiple malformations of the viscera and skeleton and reduced fetal weight were observed at doses ≥ 500 mg/kg bw, but embryolethality was seen only at 1000 mg/kg bw. Hydroxyurea was shown to pass into the embryo and to persist there longer than in maternal blood. Studies from the same laboratory with the same strain of rat showed that intraperi- toneal injection of 375 or 500 mg/kg bw hydroxyurea on day 12 of pregnancy produced microscopic evidence of cytotoxicity in the neural tube, but no malformations were observed when the dams were allowed to deliver their pups at term. Nevertheless, observation of the offspring at 30–50 days of age showed locomotor and behavioural deficits at both doses (Butcher et al. Further studies from the same laboratory with the same strain of rat showed that teratogenic and embryolethal effects could be induced by a dose as low as 137 mg/kg bw, but not by 100 mg/kg bw, administered intraperitoneally on days 9–12 of gestation (Wilson et al. Behavioural effects were also observed in the offspring of Sprague-Dawley dams treated with a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg bw hydroxyurea on various days of pregnancy (Brunner et al. The wide range of malformations induced in rats by hydroxyurea has led to its use as a positive control substance in standard testing for both terato- genicity (Aliverti et al. Comparisons of the teratogenic responses in various stocks and strains of rats showed differences in the type of malformation and the time of sensitivity in two stocks of Wistar rats (Barr & Beaudoin, 1981) and in Wistar and Fischer 344 rats (DePass & Weaver, 1982). A group of 27 pregnant golden hamsters received an intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg bw hydroxyurea on day 8 of pregnancy. A high rate of fetal death and malformations, especially of the central nervous system, was observed (Ferm, 1966). The teratogenicity of hydroxyurea in pregnant New Zealand white rabbits was demonstrated by subcutaneous injection of 750 mg/kg bw once on day 12 of gestation, with embryo and fetal examination 15 min to 32 h later by histology and on day 29 for malformations. Treatment produced marked cytotoxicity and a high percentage of resorptions (61%), reduced fetal weight and malformations in all surviving fetuses affecting most organ systems and the skeleton, as observed in rats (DeSesso & Jordan, 1977; DeSesso, 1981a). Inhibition of the cytotoxicity and teratogenicity of hydroxyurea by D-mannitol, a potent scavenger of hydroxyl free radicals, suggests that these radicals are the proximate cytotoxins and teratogens (DeSesso et al. Groups of 17 mated cats of European and Persian breeds were dosed orally with 50 or 100 mg/kg bw hydroxyurea on days 10–22 of gestation, and the fetuses were exam- ined on day 43. At 50 mg/kg bw, fetal weight and survival were not affected, but a high proportion of the fetuses were malformed, with a wide range of malformations similar to those seen in other species. At 100 mg/kg bw, a large proportion of the cats were not pregnant, but maternal and fetal weights were reduced, the frequency of resorptions increased and one of two live fetuses was malformed (cyclopia) (Khera, 1979). Of 22 pregnant female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) dosed intravenously with 50–500 mg/kg bw hydroxyurea for various times between days 18 and 45 of gestation, eight aborted or had intrauterine deaths; 10 had fetuses with multiple malformations mostly of the axial skeleton, but also genitourinary, cardiac, brain, eye and intestinal defects; and the infants of three were growth retarded and one was normal (Theisen et al. The embryos of untreated mice were removed on day 9 and cultured in vitro in various concentrations of hydroxyurea for various lengths of time, followed by culture in drug- free medium up to 48 h. In vivo, 45% of the embryos showed malformations, including exencephaly and phocomelia, and the peak plasma concentration of hydroxyurea was 311 ± 22 μg/mL 7 min after injection, with a half-time of 30 min. Culture in vitro with hydroxyurea at 300 μg/mL for 30 min resulted in malformations in 41% of the embryos that were similar to those found in vivo. Culture at a concentration of 500 μg/mL for 30 min or at 250 μg/mL for 1 h resulted in 100% malformed embryos, but culture at 125 μg/mL for 1 h resulted in no malformations (Warner et al. Malformations were also produced in chicks injected in ovo on day 4 with 800 μg of hydroxyurea (Iwama et al. The epididymides and testes were exam- ined eight and 29 days after the last injection. Body weight was not affected in any of the animals, but the testis weight was reduced in a dose-related manner at all doses except the lowest. Spermatogonial stem cells were not affected, and showed repopu- lation of cell stages with normal differentiation kinetics (Evenson & Jost, 1993). In seven cases of leukaemia treated with hydroxyurea, including three given the drug alone, there were rearrangements of chromosome 17, including unbalanced translocations, partial or complete deletions and isochromosome 17q, which resulted in 17p deletion in the leukaemic cells. P53 mutation was observed in six cases, including two treated with hydroxyurea alone. Karyotypic findings in the bone marrow of patients with essential thrombocythaemia treated with hydroxyurea Treatment Leukaemia or myelodysplastic No Total no. A review of the literature by these authors revealed similar 17p deletions in four of 11 patients treated for essential thrombocythaemia with hydroxyurea alone but in only one of 24 patients who did not receive this treatment. Tefferi (1998) cautioned, however, that the results of bone-marrow and cytogenetic investigations before treatment were not available for some of the patients. Monosomy 17 was also observed in complex karyo- types in two of three cases of leukaemia reported by Liozon et al. The t(8;21) is associated with the French–American–British M2 (acute myeloblastic) subtype of de- novo and treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia. Diverse chromosomal aberrations have been seen in human bone-marrow cells after hydroxyurea treatment. The bone-marrow cells of five of six patients treated with hydroxyurea alone had abnormalities, includ- ing an unbalanced t(1;7)(p11;p11), which can be associated with treatment-related myelodysplastic syndrome, but this abnormality may occur without prior treatment. Cytogenetic analyses in these five patients were performed only on bone-marrow samples obtained after treatment.
Certain other commentators have viewed the successful exploitation of captives in Korea and similar incidents as less indicative of increasing perfection in the arts of influence and coercion purchase doxycycline 200mg with mastercard. They have attributed the successes of the captor to individual defects of background and stamina in the prisoners who collaborated purchase doxycycline 100mg on-line, or to a general deterioration of the vitality of social values and controls in contemporary society (16 order doxycycline 200 mg without a prescription, 25, 31, 61, 62, 63). Scientific examination of the manipulation of behavior has been made difficult by the intensity of the recent controversy over national -2- prisoner-of-war policy. There has been dispute regarding the extent to which individual repatriated prisoners of war are legally or morally responsible for deviations from ideal standards of military conduct, especially in the matter of yielding information or making "confessions" to the captor (9, 25, 31, 39, 41, 47, 49, 54, 64). A central question of fact has stood out in this controversy, quite apart from the moral and philosophical issues raised: whether all individuals, regardless of how strongly motivated to resist, could be made to comply with demands for information, "confessions," or other collaboration by methods employed by the Communists, provided that the intensity, duration, and quality of the pressures were sufficiently great. Critics of the policy evolved after the Korean War — "The Code of Conduct" — argued that the failure of the policy makers to consider imminent developments in scientific methods of human manipulation has been a more serious error than a lack of understanding of the practices actually encountered by prisoners in Korea. Air Force through their sponsorship has sought an authoritative examination of publicized speculations regarding the possible use of scientific developments in the manipulation of behavior against future prisoners of war. Aside from treatments of its more sensational aspects, -3- very little information on the topic appears in open-source literature. The dearth of sober information on interrogation has had the unfortunate consequence of facilitating the exploitation of United States prisoners of war by Communist captors (64). Our purpose here has been to bring together in one book authoritative information on methods of behavioral control that have been the subject of considerable speculation in discussions of interrogation. Scientists representing a variety of fields have examined a number of hypothetical means that might occur to an interrogator for eliciting information against the will of his subject. Their attention has been more on what could be done than on what actually may have been done. All the questions that are frequently raised about these methods cannot be answered by such an approach, however, since many of them are not translatable into scientific terms. Origin of Nonrational Concern Many scholars have observed that science replaces magic and witchcraft as societies secularize. The problems of living in the present age remain much as they have always been, however. The aspirations and anxieties that not so long ago were projected onto conceptions of the wizard and witch are now directed to the scientist. These opposites are incongruously exaggerated in paranoid thinking, one of the most prevalent mental symptoms of Western man. They doubtless exist in the fantasy of most persons, to extents that differ from paranoia in intensity and pervasiveness. The profound fascination of the topic under consideration may stem from the primitive, unconscious, and extreme responses to these problems, which gain expression in myth, dreams, drama, and literature. On the one hand, there is the dream- wish for omnipotence; on the other, the wish and fear of the loss of self through its capture by another. The current interest in problems of manipulation of behavior involves basic ambivalences over omnipotence and dependency, which, if projected, find a ready target in the "omniscient" scientist (30). With the perfection of mass-destruction weapons and the elaboration of totalitarian efforts to control human behavior, the myth has begun to converge with aspects of reality. Regarding weapons of physical destruction, responsible scientific evidence is offered along with uninformed and ill-informed surmises, both in support of forecasts of doom and in rebuttal. In the case of the threats science poses to human autonomy, however, sensationally speculative expressions, like those of the Brave New World that Aldous Huxley (21) recently revisited, have enjoyed a near monopoly. In professional journals and publications, as well as in statements for popular consumption, scientists have sometimes contributed to uncritical thinking regarding the potential application of scientific developments to the control of human behavior. Some scientists have done so in their zeal to make the public aware of the dangerous tool which the techniques for manipulating behavior could become in the hands of totalitarian and other irresponsible practitioners. A common error has been to assume that some scientific development, or some explicit scientific theory, was being applied by Commanist "brainwashers" and other manipulators (2, 4, 5, 18). It has been pointed out that the ways in which the popular communication media define the problem are akin to those of prescientific times (56). Raymond Bauer (2) has noted the resemblance of the concept "brainwashing" to demonology: the idea of the "brainwashed" does not differ greatly from that of the "possessed" (6). Viewing the problem in magical or diabolical terms is not an altogetlier irrational analogy, given the existence of those who simultaneously practice and seek perfection of the means for controlling behavior and conceive of their efforts as directed toward "possessing the will" of their victims. Thus, the Chinese Communist leaders not only find nothing to resent in charges that they "brainwash" their opponents (cf. Scientific sobriety demands that the dry examination of experimental evidence replace the lively books on exorcism of ancient times. As in many contemporary works which are closer to the livelier lore of ancient times, however, the present review deals with human concerns antedating science that are at the root of the central question: "Can man really be made to behave contrary to his profoundest beliefs and his conscious self-interest? Various writers have invested the techniques of interrogators with the magic of science by attaching technical labels to what actually have been traditional and pragmatic practices (2). In assuming the attitude of the "hard-headed" scientist toward the problem, there is a danger in falling into an equivalent misuse of science. This would be the case were one, in effect, to attempt to counter those who present a diabolical image of the "brainwasher" by invoking superior scientific deities to frighten this specter away. Thus, magical thinking and projections, as has been indicated, pervade prevalent judgments regarding the significance of the behavioral alterations that interrogators can effect. By substituting impassive scientific names for ordinary language with its intense connotations for human values, the impression may be given of eliminating not only these extravagant judgments but also almost all the human significance of these effects. Difficulties inhere in dealing scientifically with a problem that relates so immediately to basic human values. Assumptions in this work hold the person against whom the interrogation efforts are -6- directed — who is designated following common intelligence usage as "the source" — to be highly motivated to safeguard the information; and that, at least initially, the source regards denying information to his interrogator as "more important than life itself. Similarly, Western jurisprudence recognizes that lengthy interrogation, even without physical coercion, can produce "unwilling" confessions, true or false, of capital crimes. Divergent interpretations have been placed on reported cases of individuals who have resisted very intensive interrogations without divulging information. Some use it to demonstrate the existence of an unconquerable, inextinguishable human will. Others regard the instances of successful resistance to interrogation as mere illustrations of remediable deficiencies in interrogation technique. Neither this nor any other scientific volume, in the opinion of the editors, can resolve the differences implicit in these two orientations, or yet other interpretations. On the basis of scientific tests alone, they are difficult to resolve even with a completely deterministic set of assumptions. As the approach of this review illustrates, for any given set of motivations of the source, however powerful, one can at least speculate about possible manipulations to overcome them. On the other hand, it is possible to speculate about methods of heightening motivations and defenses against any conceivable manipulative assault. Exclusively scientific tests probably cannot foreclose either possibility at this time. Another important qualification to conventional ideas about the ultimate limits of the control of human behavior will become apparent in some of the discussions that follow.
Consider and analyze some loan words which have appeared in Russian language in recent years buy generic doxycycline. The research materials are the words of foreign origin discount doxycycline 100 mg amex, which have been partially or completely mastered by Russian language order doxycycline 200mg mastercard. It is not only the perception of words from other languages, but their creative development on all levels of language system, formal and semantic transformation according to the original features of Russian language and a high degree of its development. Foreign-language words were subjected to various kinds of changes (phonetic, morphological, semantic), submitting to the laws of development of the Russian language, its functional-stylistic norms. Correspondingly, it is accepted to allocate following stages of adoption of loan words: phonetic, graphical, grammatical and semantic. The process of mastering of words and expressions in Russian language causes us great interest, since at the current stage from long-term it has turned into one, which is happening right in our eyes. There is already a word with the same meaning, for example, a управляющий or colloquial управленец. However, the word менеджер (manager) is absolutely unique, and there is no substitute for it. Thus, contemporary texts, the names of professions, shops, cafes, restaurants, firms and etc. Will all these words included into Russian language or not, time will tell, and at this stage we can make only assumptions. There are many terms in Latin language, which name persons, who are engaged in education and tuition. The initial meanings of this word were the ruler, the boss, the manager and the supervisor. This word is related with the words magnus - large, magis – more, which have root mag. Later it began to used to designate the notion of the teacher, often in combination with the word ludus - school: magister ludi, magister ludi librarii, primus magister. Next term litterator comes from the word littera - the letter, because the main litterator`s task was to teach children the alphabet, to read and to write.. Reading and writing teacher has been called librarius or magister libraries, came from the word liber – a book. Teens from the rich Roman families have been patronized by the cultural Greek slaves, who have been called paedagogus. He followed boy`s education, taught the Greek language and accompanied the boy to school, so he was called pedisequus – somebody, who accompanies or comes, custos – the guardian. Rhetor, orator or eloquence teacher, prepared students for the judicial and political work and directed the third stage of the Roman School. Besides the Greek word rhetor, synonyms orator, scholasticus, graecus have been used. Frequently it has been used to name a teacher of rhetoric, grammar, philosophy, scientist. This term has been used for the teacher of scientific disciplines: rhetoric, philology, science, philosophy, law, medicine. In conclusion, some terms, denoting persons engaged in teaching, got over the Roman Empire and became the part of the educational and scientific vocabulary in many modern European countries. There were periods in the history of mankind when Latin was a part of fashion and out of it. However, it always remained a unique phenomenon of human culture to conquer space and time. Despite this even after its death, the Latin language lives in new – Romanic – languages, Catholic liturgy, terminology systems of modern science. To identify the significance of the role of the Latin language in the contemporary world. Review of the literature on the topic, searching information on the Internet, the collection of the material, comparative analysis. The movement for the use of Latin in the modern life th appeared in the early 20 century. It was an attempt of a cultural revival based on rich ancient traditions and in the course of tendencies seeking to achieve the more integrated Europe. In Germany there was formed a society of ―Societas Latina‖ which issued the ―Vox Latina‖ magazine. Modern literature in the Latin language is represented by such well-known writers and poets as Arrius Nurus, Geneviève Immi, Alanus Divutius, Anna Elissa Radke, Ianus Novak, Thomas Pekkanen etc. In medicine and pharmacy the Latin language has traditionally remained the main international source for the formation of a new terminology in natural science, medicine and pharmacy in modern languages. We cannot state that Latin may eventually regain the position as the international language of science and culture. However, there are no doubts that the Latin language will live and develop in accordance with the needs of our time. By this I mean real modern slavery, where people get in trap trying to find better life. Those people have to work hard, it‘s forbidden for them to leave their place of work and living by their so-called ―employers‖. Moreover, ―slaves‖ can‘t communicate with their relatives or seek help from government. And the worst pert is that you can‘t break this system from inside, so it‘s in our interests to prevent these crimes against human rights. From moral point we can‘t say that it‘s not our problem, because it can happen to anyone: you, your family or friends. I believe that the main reason of modern slavery is language ―border‖, because there is no point to cry for help if no one will understand you. Today government try to integrate English into our lives, but it seems that none of it‘s methods work. Eventually this brings us to another statistical result, according to the English Language Resources less then 4 percents of people can speak English in Ukraine. Just because riding a bike seems really cool in childhood, and it‘s known that children learn everything much better and faster than adults. You might think that we have already English schools for our beloved kids, that we even have English classes in pre-school. The problem is that in schools teachers always say that the main subjects are math and Russian or Ukrainian languages. Even if you want your kid to learn English in English schools, you‘ll have to spend a lot of money. By just accepting this fact as life we are guilty for making English some kind of luxury! By achieving this we‘ll get a country that has 3 national languages, imagine our culture in 100 years after this victory. A country of culture, business and all kinds of opportunities, a country of diversity and peace. Finally to sum up all my words into single thought I want to say that difference is not makes us hate to each other, but misunderstanding is.
Susceptible organisms in vivo: staphylococci 200 mg doxycycline fast delivery, Streptococcus pneumoniae purchase genuine doxycycline on line, beta-hemolytic streptococci purchase doxycycline 100 mg with mastercard, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus viridans, Escherichia coli, Hemophilus influen- zae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp. Children >25 kg: 50 mg/kg/d, two equal doses • Gonorrhea, acute uncomplicated urogenital infections Adults: 1. Editorial comments • Bacampicillin has no advantage over ampicillin and has a sim- ilar spectrum of activity. Mechanism of action: Inhibits mono- and polysynaptic reflexes within the spinal cord resulting in decreased spasticity. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: seizures, decreased renal function. Sit at the edge of the bed for several minutes before standing, lie down if feeling faint or dizzy. Male patients with orthostatic hypotension may be safer urinating while seated on the toilet rather than standing. Editorial comments: Balclofen appears to also be an effective treatment for refractory hiccups (singultus). Mechanism of action: Inhibits elaboration of many of the medi- ators of allergic inflammation, eg, leukotrienes and other prod- ucts of the arachidonic acid cascade. Contraindications: Untreated fungal, bacterial, or viral infec- tions, untreated infections of nasal mucosa, hypersensitivity to corticosteroids. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: tuberculosis of the respiratory tract (active or quiescent), expo- sure to measles or chicken pox. Alternatively, adrenal insufficiency may occur: weakness, fatigue, nausea, anorexia. This may minimize the development of dry mouth, hoarseness, and oral fungal infection. Adverse reactions • Common: nasal irritation, cough, pharyngitis, sneezing attacks. Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of acute adrenal insufficiency, particu- larly in response to stress. If these occur, the dose of systemic steroid should be increased followed by slower withdrawal. However, there is considerable controversy with respect to the beneficial use of higher than recommended inhalation doses of these drugs. Adjustment of dosage • Kidney disease: Creatinine clearance <30 mL/min: initial dose 5 mg/d. Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: kidney disease, especially renal artery stenosis, drugs that cause bone marrow depression, hypovolemia, hyponatremia, cardiac or cerebral insufficiency, collagen vascular disease, lupus ery- thematosus, scleroderma, patients undergoing dialysis. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of benazepril: potassium- sparing drugs, other diuretics, guanethidine. Nearly every large randomized clinical trial examining their use has been favorable. Treatment with this class of drugs is the gold standard in patients with left ventricular systolic dys- function. As drugs in this class are vasodilators, orthostasis is another potential problem. Mechanism of action: Inhibits sodium resorption in distal tubule, resulting in increased urinary excretion of sodium, potasssium, and water. Onset of Action Peak Effect Duration 1–2 h 4 h 6–24 h Food: Should be taken with food. Hydrochlorothiazide (another thi- azide diuretic) is considered compatible with breastfeeding by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Editorial comments • Do not coadminister with allopurinol as the combination may lead to severe hypersensitivity vasculitis. Mechanism of action: Blocks acetylcholine effects at muscarinic receptors throughout the body. Adverse reactions • Common: dry mouth, blurred vision (decreased accommoda- tion), drowsiness, tachycardia, urinary hesitancy, dry skin, con- stipation. Parameters to monitor • Signs and symptoms of severe toxicity: tachycardia, supraven- tricular arrythmias, delirium, seizures, agitation, hyperthermia. Mechanism of action: Inhibits migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; stabilizes lysomal membranes; inhibits production of products of arachidonic acid cascade. These should be individualized according to the disease being treated and the response of the patient. Contraindications: Systemic use: fungal, viral, or bacterial infec- tions, Cushing’s syndrome. Topical use: hypersensitivity to cor- ticosteroids, markedly impaired circulation, occlusive dressing if primary skin infection is present, monotherapy in primary bac- terial infections, eg, impetigo, cellulitis, rosacea, ophthalmic use, plaque psoriasis (widespread). Warnings/precautions • Use with caution in patients with the following conditions: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, throm- bophlebitis, renal or hepatic insufficiency. Topical agent: Use with caution in patients with primary skin infections and those receiving other immunosuppressant drugs. When every-other-day therapy is initiated, twice the daily dose should be administered on alternate days in the morning. Adverse reactions • Common: dyspepsia, appetite stimulation, insomnia, anxiety, fluid retension, cushinoid facies. Children: Growth suppression, pseudotumor cerebri (reversible papilledema, visual loss, nerve paralysis [abducens or oculomotor]), vascular bone necrosis, pan- creatitis. Editorial comments: Corticoid treatment remains challeng- ing for clinicians due to commonly occurring short-term and long-term side effects. The agents produce accelerated bone resorption as well as decreased bone formation, result- ing in overall bone loss with chronic use. Ongoing monitor- ing is suggested and treatment with bisphosphonates or calcitonin is suggested when decreased bone mineral density occurs. Mechanism of action: Competitive blocker of β-adrenergic receptors in heart, blood vessels, and eyes. If necessary to dis- continue, taper as follows: Reduce dose and reassess after 1–2 weeks. Advice to patient • Avoid driving and other activities requiring mental alertness or that are potentially dangerous until response to drug is known. Clinically important drug interactions • Drugs that increase effects/toxicity of β blockers: reserpine, bretylium, calcium channel blockers. If hypotension occurs despite correction of bradycardia, administer vasopressor (norephinephrine, dopamine, or dobuta- mine). Stop therapy and administer large doses of β-adrenergic bronchodilator, eg, albuterol, terbutaline, or amino- phylline. Some advocate discontinuing the drug 48 hours before surgery; others recommend withdrawal for a considerably longer time.
Pharmacodynamics Allopurinol and its metabolite oxypurinol inhibit xanthine oxi- dase purchase 100 mg doxycycline visa, the enzyme responsible for the production of uric acid purchase doxycycline with a visa. By reducing uric acid formation purchase doxycycline 100 mg without a prescription, allopurinol eliminates the hazards Colchicine of hyperuricuria. It can Colchicine appears to reduce the inflammatory response to mono- have you running sodium urate crystals deposited in joint tissues. Pharmacotherapeutics Allopurinol treats primary gout, hopefully preventing acute gouty attacks. It can be prescribed with uricosurics when smaller dosages of each drug are directed. It’s used to treat: • gout or hyperuricemia that may occur with blood abnormalities and during treatment of tumors or leukemia • primary or secondary uric acid nephropathy (with or without the accompanying symptoms of gout) • patients who respond poorly to maximum dosages of urico- surics or who have allergic reactions or intolerance to uricosuric drugs (it’s also used to prevent recurrent uric acid stone forma- tion). Acute alert Colchicine is used to relieve the inflammation of acute gouty arthritis attacks. In addition, giving colchicine during the first several months of allopurinol, probenecid, or sulfinpyrazone therapy may prevent the acute gouty attacks that sometimes accompany the use of these drugs. Adverse • Allopurinol increases the serum concentrations of mercapto- reactions to purine and azathioprine, increasing the risk of toxicity. Allopurinol and colchi- • The risk of bone marrow depression increases when cyclophos- cine commonly cause phamide is taken with allopurinol. Allopurinol The most common ad- Quick quiz verse reaction to allo- purinol is a rash. What’s the most common adverse reaction for most antihista- mines, with the exceptions of fexofenadine and loratadine? Which signs and symptoms suggest that a patient is experi- encing Cushing’s syndrome? Buffalo hump, elevated blood glucose levels, and moon face are all signs and symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome. Which condition indicates that a patient is experiencing an adverse reaction to azathioprine? Bone marrow suppression indicates that a patient is experiencing an adverse reaction to azathioprine. Drugs and psychiatric disorders This chapter presents drugs that are used to treat various sleep and psychogenic disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and psy- chotic disorders. You’re getting very sleepy… When given in large doses, sedatives are considered hypnotics, which induce a state resembling natural sleep. The three main classes of synthetic drugs used as sedatives and hypnotics are: benzodiazepines barbiturates nonbenzodiazepine-nonbarbiturate drugs. Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines produce many therapeutic effects, including: • sedation before anesthesia • sleep inducement • relief of anxiety and tension • skeletal muscle relaxation • anticonvulsant activity. Keep your eye on the hypnotic ones Benzodiazepines are used in various clinical situations and exert either a primary or a secondary sedative or hypnotic effect. Ben- zodiazepines used primarily for their sedative or hypnotic effects include: • estazolam • flurazepam • lorazepam • quazepam • temazepam • triazolam. When some calm is needed Benzodiazepines used primarily for the treatment of anxiety in- clude: • alprazolam • chlordiazepoxide • clonazepam • clorazepate • diazepam • lorazepam • oxazepam. Some benzodiazepines, such as diaze- pam and lorazepam, may also be given parenterally. The rate of absorption determines how quickly the drug will work; flurazepam and triazolam have the fastest onset. Triazolam binds quickly to fat and is widely distributed; therefore, it has a short duration of action. Metabolism and excretion All benzodiazepines are metabolized in the liver and excreted pri- marily in urine. Some benzodiazepines have active metabolites, which may give these drugs a longer period of action. The drugs can usually calm or sedate the pa- benzodiazepines tient without causing drowsiness. Zzzzzzzzzzzz… Benzodiazepines increase total sleep time and reduce the number of awakenings. During each sleep cycle the sleeping person progresses from stage 1, which is drowsiness, to stages 3 and 4, which are deep- sleep stages. How benzodiazepines work These illustrations show how benzodiazepines work at the cellular level. This depresses Impulses slow or stop Cl the nerve impulses, causing Cl Cl Cl them to slow down or stop. Possible problems with the pill Hormonal contraceptives may reduce the metabolism of fluraze pam hydrochloride, increasing the risk of toxicity. Adverse reactions to benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines may cause: tion time on awakening), and rebound insom- • amnesia nia may also occur. Benzodi- • nausea and vomiting azepines with a long half-life or active metabo- • dizziness lites may accumulate and cause adverse ef- • ataxia (impaired ability to coordinate move- fects in elderly patients. Barbiturates used primarily as sedatives and hypnotics include: • amobarbital • butabarbital • mephobarbital • pentobarbital • phenobarbital • secobarbital. On the dose Low doses of barbiturates depress the sensory and motor cortex in the brain, causing drowsiness. Low doses of Pharmacodynamics barbiturates depress As sedative-hypnotics, barbiturates depress the sensory cortex of parts of the brain. Pharmacotherapeutics Barbiturates have many clinical indications, including: • daytime sedation (for short periods only, typically less than 2 weeks) • hypnotic effects for patients with insomnia • preoperative sedation and anesthesia • relief of anxiety • anticonvulsant effects. In comparison, benzo- diazepines are relatively effective and safe and, for these reasons, Warning! Cardiovascular and res- • When barbiturates are taken with acetaminophen, the risk of piratory effects include: liver toxicity increases. These drugs, which offer no special ad- • reduced rate of vantages over other sedatives, include: breathing • chloral hydrate • severe respiratory de- • eszopiclone pression. Other reactions include: • vertigo Diminishing returns • nausea and vomiting Chloral hydrate and zaleplon lose their effectiveness by the end of • diarrhea the second week. Food and Drug Administration requires that all sedative-hypnotic drugs include a warn- ing on the drug label about the risk of complex sleep-related behaviors. Complex sleep-related nonbenzo- behaviors include preparing and eating food, making phone calls, and even driving when not fully diazepines- awake, while having no memory of the event. The three main types of antianxiety drugs are benzodiazepines (discussed in a previous section), barbiturates (also discussed in a previous section), and buspirone. Buspirone is the first antianxiety drug in a class of drugs known as azaspirodecanedione derivatives. This drug’s structure and mechanism of action differ from those of other antianxiety drugs.