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Tese changes have been documented and calibrated by various authors for a number of sites in the skeleton discount top avana online visa,43–45 and are of use in the aging skeleton because the process of turnover on which it is based extends throughout life generic 80 mg top avana otc. As is the case with other techniques order 80 mg top avana mastercard, error in the calculated age range by histomorphological methods increases with time. Since the estimated stature derives from long bone lengths that do not change signifcantly afer matu- rity, this approach gives a range that does not take into consideration loss of stature from compression of the spinal fbrocartilages. A correction is usu- ally applied for individuals whose age is estimated to be over thirty years. When long bones are incomplete because of trauma or taphonomic efects, it is sometimes possible to estimate the vital length of some bones by proportionality techniques. In general, the best estimates of stature are based upon multiple bones, which are used in algorithms derived from population data refecting current secular trends. Anthropologists are sometimes asked to render estimates of the living weight of a decedent who has been reduced to bones. Putting aside ancillary information such as belts, shoes, and other clothing that may accompany remains, the answer will require strong qualifcation. Since an individual may lose as much as 50% of his or her body mass over a relatively short time (e. Accordingly, statements about frame size, proportionality, and the distribu- tion of muscularity are preferable. Cross-sectional thickness or simply the weight of various bones in combination with proportionality ratios can pro- vide information about how much sof tissue weight an individual might be expected to carry. Tis picture may be refned by a careful examination of entheses, the points of tendon insertion, which are modifed by muscular activity over a period of time. Tus, one may arrive at an estimate of how Forensic anthropology 147 well developed an individual may have been for a particular frame size and stature at some point in life. Examination of the pattern in which the skeleton has reinforced itself in response to habitual or repetitive biomechanical action has sometimes proved useful in the inclusion or exclusion of certain occupations, sports, or other activities performed over a period of several years, which may alter a list of suspected matches. When these data, combined with a list of unique identifers, are compared to a database of missing persons, the list of possible matches usually reduces to a manageable few. At the discovery of unknown human remains, the authorities will either have a theory about the identity of the decedent or not. Tis will include dental charts, bitewings and pano- graphic images if available, old x-rays, or other medical images (e. When images are unavailable, medical records describing pros- theses, pacemakers, shunt devices, cosmetic implants, orthopedic devices, and the like may be sufciently detailed for comparison to the postmortem evidence. Antemortem records of diseases that would be expected to leave evi- dence in the hard tissues are also useful, particularly when the incidence of a disorder is known. In some cases of suspected identity, when none of the foregoing is available, it is sometimes useful to perform a skull-to-photograph superimposition. Although tradition- ally used to exclude matches, some have successfully employed video super- imposition to achieve positive identifcations when a complete skull and good quality photographs from several angles are available. Tis approach rises to the standard of positive identifcation when combinations of features such as treatments (e. Tis technique is best deployed jointly by the anthropologist and the odontologist. Te likelihood of an individual being a particular sex, age, ancestry, and stature is roughly the product of the individual probabilities of being any one of 148 Forensic dentistry those things. When individual identifers are available, those with a known incidence can be entered into the calculation, reducing the set of possible matches toward unity. Identifers that can be traced directly to a decedent provide the basis for a positive identifcation, e. In such instances it is imperative that direct association between the decedent and the device can be established. For example, an orthodontic or orthopedic device afxed to the remains is preferable to one that has become detached. Experience in mass death incidents involv- ing scattered and commingled remains bear this out. In some instances an implant, orthopedic device, or prosthesis may be found in a decedent without a suspected match. If the medical artifact bears a serial number and can be attributed to a particular manufacturer, it is sometimes possible to trace the device to a particular treatment facility, and thence through surgical records to a recipient. Whatever the means of identifcation, in the post-Daubert era, all conclusions and the techniques from which they are derived will require robust statistical support. As an example, though used as a basis for positive identifcation for years, comparison of ante- and postmortem frontal sinus x-rays has only recently been validated. Te main reasons for esti- mating the postmortem interval are (1) the inclusion or exclusion of suspects, (2) reduction of the number of possible matches in a database, and (3) deter- mination of the forensic signifcance of a set of remains, i. On most occasions, when an anthropologist is asked to deter- mine the postmortem interval, the decedent will have been dead for weeks to years. Ideally, the remains will be pristine, and it is for this reason that many examiners prefer to attend the recovery, whether it may be an exhumation, collection of scattered bones, or even submerged remains. Te anthropolo- gist may supervise and document the process, collecting relevant samples, e. But, most importantly, he or she will want to assess the remains in context before any processing occurs. General observations will include corporal (from the body) as well as environmental information: What is the quantity and qual- ity of the remains? What are the characteristics of the local weather, terrain, water sources, and fauna, all of which will infuence the rate of decomposition or disassembly of remains? In addition to these two major sources of information, there are two general approaches to timing a death: rate methods and concurrence methods. Te degree to which bone has lost mineral and organic content, the change in sound or electrical conduction properties of bone, changes in specifc gravity, and the amount of total lipid lost are examples of features that change with documentable rates. Te details of these and other rate techniques are beyond the scope of this discussion, but may be found elsewhere. Concurrence estimates of the postmortem interval depend upon establishing an association between the remains and an object or event for which time can be fxed. An individual will not have died before the most recently minted coins in his pockets; there may be a scattering of leaves upon the body from nearby trees, which places its death before leaf fall, a natural event whose timing will be known to local botanists. Te state or type of clothing may reveal season of death as well as time of day or night, etc. When an elderly decomposing, mummifed, or even skeletonized individual is discovered indoors, one ofen need look no further than the oldest letter in the mailbox. Because the estimate may be used to establish or exclude possible matches, or entered into a data- base along with other information, it is better to err on the side of more inclusive estimates than to exclude a true match through overconfdence. Most of the other decedents were, as expected, represented by little more than dental frag- ments and cofn splinters. Just short of proclaiming the burial a much more recent one, he was reminded of an almost identical experience described by William Bass, who in the 1970s encountered similar fndings in a Civil War era burial. When the anthropologist is asked to examine remains at the end of this process with little or no reliable information about context or procedure, it is prudent to refrain from any except the most general estimate of postmortem interval.

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Our bodies have not adapted to handle the chronic stress so common today cheap top avana line, which leads to damage and destruction throughout the body purchase 80 mg top avana mastercard. Hans Selye cheap generic top avana uk, one of the founders of the Canadian Institute of Stress, the physical experience of continuous stress has three stages: alarm, resis- tance, and exhaustion. In the alarm stage, our bodies engage in their biologically programmed fight-or-flight mode. The stress hormones catecholamines (adrenaline and noradrenaline) and glucocorticoids (cortisol) are released. When this occurs, the body enters a catabolic state; that is, it begins to break down fuels (fats, stored sugar) to provide energy. Our senses are heightened and heart rate, blood pressure, blood vol- ume, and pulmonary (lung) tone increase to enhance the function of the heart and lungs. At the resistance stage, the body works to heal itself by adapting resistance mechanisms to counter the negative effects of stress. Numerous studies have linked stress to increased risk of heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high cholesterol and blood pressure, anxiety, depression, memory loss, insomnia, muscle tension, obesity, fatigue, low libido, erectile dysfunction, and men- strual cycle disturbances. There are a variety of lifestyle, nutritional, and supplemental approaches discussed in this chapter. In fact, stress-related ailments account for between 75 percent and 90 percent of all vis- its to the doctor, and stress is linked to the six leading causes of death—heart disease, cancer, lung ailments, accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, and suicide. Even small things such as spilling your morning coffee or being low on gas might trigger stress. As a result, they are often left to treat the visible complaint, such as insomnia, blood pressure, ulcers, or depression. In most cases, these secondary health concerns are treated with prescription medications, but healthy eating, sleep, and stress man- agement should be the central focus. The main class of drugs used to treat anxiety and stress include the benzodiaz- epines, namely, alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Rivotril), diazepam (Valium), and lorazepam (Ativan). These drugs work quickly (30–60 minutes) to ease anxiety and promote relaxation, but they are addictive and have numerous side effects, including drowsiness, loss of coordination, dizziness, and impaired memory. These foods provide essential nutrients that are needed to help the body deal with stress. S • Fish and flaxseed contain essential fatty acids that are necessary for proper brain and ner- vous system function. Wean off caffeine slowly to avoid with- drawal symptoms, which can worsen anxiety. Lifestyle Suggestions • Develop a positive attitude toward life’s many challenges and work on managing anger and hostility. Many smokers light up when they are stressed, but smoking actually wors- ens stress and causes nervous system damage. Top Recommended Supplements B-vitamins: Essential for nervous system and adrenal function; a deficiency can cause anxi- ety and worsen the response to stress. Dosage: Look for a product that provides 50–100 mg of the B-vitamins and take daily. Calcium and Magnesium: Promote calming and relaxation, and support muscle and nerve function. Lactium: A milk protein that contains bioactive peptide with anti-stress properties. Several studies have shown that Lactium can help reduce the physical and mental effects and symp- toms of stress. Complementary Supplements Panax ginseng: An adaptogenic herb that helps reduce the response to stress. It also sup- ports physical and mental performance, immune function, and adrenal gland function, all of which can be hampered by stress. Relora: A combination of magnolia and phellodendron, which reduces stress without caus- ing drowsiness. It also helps in the production of important neurotransmitters that are required for mood and proper sleep, and it provides support for cardiovascular and immune function. Eat a healthy diet that is rich in vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds, and choose lean protein and healthy fats. Reduce or eliminate processed fast foods, caffeine, refined starches, sugar, alcohol, and tobacco. Areas of the brain commonly affected by stroke are those that control movement, speech, vision, and sensation. Stroke is a medical emergency that requires immediate treat- ment to minimize damage to the brain and disability. They occur when blood clots or other particles block arter- ies to your brain and cause severely reduced blood flow (ischemia). This deprives your brain cells of oxygen and nutrients, and cells may begin to die within minutes. This can result from a number of conditions that affect your blood vessels, such as uncontrolled high blood pressure (hypertension) and weak spots in your blood vessel walls (aneurysms). S Stroke is a major cause of death in Canada, but your chance of surviving a stroke today is much greater than it was a few decades ago. About half of all people who have a stroke recover to some degree, although about one-third of first strokes are fatal, so early detection and prevention are critical. It causes the same signs and symptoms as a stroke, but it lasts for a short time (few minutes to hours) and then disappears. Weakness: Sudden loss of strength or sudden numbness in the face, arm, or leg, even if temporary. Trouble speaking: Sudden difficulty speaking or understanding or sudden confusion, even if temporary. This drug can improve your chances of a full recovery, but it is effective only if given within three hours of initial symptoms. 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The two-factor theory of emotion asserts that the experience of emotion is determined by the intensity of the arousal we are experiencing, but that the cognitive appraisal of the situation determines what the emotion will be. When people incorrectly label the source of the arousal that they are experiencing, we say that they have misattributed their arousal. We communicate and perceive emotion in part through nonverbal communication and through facial expressions. The facial feedback hypothesis proposes that we also experience emotion in part through our own facial expressions. Stress refers to the physiological responses that occur when an organism fails to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats. The general adaptation syndrome describes the three phases of physiological change that occur in response to long-term stress: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. The stress that we experience in our everyday lives, including daily hassles, can be taxing. People who experience strong negative emotions as a result of these hassles exhibit more negative stress responses those who react in a less negative way. On average, men are more likely than are women to respond to stress by activating the fight-or- flight response, whereas women are more likely to respond using the tend-and-befriend response. It is healthier to let out the negative thoughts and feelings by expressing them, either to ourselves or to others. It is easier to respond to stress if we can interpret it in more positive ways—for instance, as a challenge rather than a threat. Regulating emotions takes effort, but the ability to do so can have important positive health outcomes. The best antidote for stress is to think positively, have fun, and enjoy the company of others. People who express optimism, self-efficacy, and hardiness cope better with stress and experience better health overall. Happiness is determined in part by genetic factors such that some people are naturally happier than others, but it is also facilitated by social support—our positive social relationships with others. After a minimum level of wealth is reached, more money does not generally buy more happiness. Although people think that positive and negative events will make a huge difference in their lives, and although these changes do make at least some difference in life satisfaction, they tend to be less influential than we think they are going to be. Motivations are often considered in psychology in terms of drives and goals, with the goal of maintaining homeostasis. The desire to be thin can lead to eating disorders including anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Uncontrolled obesity leads to health problems including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, arthritis, Alzheimer‘s disease, and some types of cancer. The sex hormone testosterone is particularly important for sex drive, in both men and women. Sexual behavior varies widely, not only between men and women but within each sex. The vast majority of human beings have a heterosexual orientation, but a smaller minority is primarily homosexual or bisexual. The love and sexual lives of homosexuals and bisexual are little different from those of heterosexuals, except where their behaviors are constrained by cultural norms and local laws. Chapter 11 Personality Identical Twins Reunited after 35 Years Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein were identical twins who were adopted into separate families immediately after their births in 1968. It was only at the age of 35 that the twins were reunited and discovered how similar they were to each other. She loved her adopted parents and older brother and even wrote an article titled ―Why I Don‘t Want to Find My Birth Mother. In 2003, 35 years after she was adopted, Elyse, acting on a whim, inquired about her biological family at the adoption agency. Elyse dialed Paula‘s phone number: ―It‘s almost like I‘m hearing my own voice in a recorder back at me,‖ she said. The two women met for the first time at a café for lunch and talked until the late evening. Looking at this person, you are able to gaze into your own eyes and see yourself from the outside. Elyse and Paula You can learn more about the experiences of Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein by viewing this video. One of the most fundamental tendencies of human beings is to size up other people. When we make these statements, we mean that we believe that these people have stable individual characteristics— their personalities. Personalityis defined as an individual’s consistent patterns of feeling, [2] thinking, and behaving (John, Robins, & Pervin, 2008). The tendency to perceive personality is a fundamental part of human nature, and a most adaptive one. If we can draw accurate generalizations about what other people are normally like, we can predict how they will behave in the future, and this can help us determine how they are likely to respond in different situations. Understanding personality can also help us better understand psychological disorders and the negative behavioral outcomes they may produce. We‘ll consider how and when personality influences our behavior, and how well we perceive the personalities of others. We will also consider how psychologists measure personality, and the extent to which personality is caused by nature versus nurture. The fundamental goal of personality psychologists is to understand what makes people different from each other (the study of individual differences), but they also find that people who share genes (as do Paula Bernstein and Elyse Schein) have a remarkable similarity in personality. Define and review the strengths and limitations of the trait approach to personality. Early theories assumed that personality was expressed in people‘s physical appearance. One early approach, developed by the German physician Franz Joseph Gall (1758–1828) and known as phrenology, was based on the idea that we could measure personality by assessing the patterns of bumps on people‘s skulls (Figure 11. In the Victorian age, phrenology was taken seriously and many people promoted its use as a source of psychological insight and self- knowledge. Machines were even developed for helping people analyze skulls (Simpson, [1] 2005).

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Usually discount 80 mg top avana free shipping, the exit defect will be irregular and somewhat larger than the entry because of deformation of the round during its transit through the target discount top avana express. Both entry and exit bevels will have edges that slope approximately 45° from the incident angle order 80 mg top avana mastercard. Tis feature owes to the manner in which fracture lines propa- gate through the hydroxyapatite crystal. Notable exceptions to this rule include the keyhole defect produced by a low-angle strike tangent to the skull. Although the round may not enter the skull, a bevel is produced on both the outer and inner surfaces. Detailed descriptions of the interaction of projectiles and bone may be found in several sources65 (DiMaio 2003, 175–83). If garments accompany the remains, they should be examined for defects over- laying any ballistic injuries for possible indications of range of fre, such as soot or scorching. Ballistic metal usually transfers some of its substance to the bone through which it passes. Rounds entering the body and skull are ofen fragmented as they strike bone tissue. For this reason, remains believed to contain ballistic materials should be radiographed before an examination begins. When this is the case, following x-ray, the skull should be opened and examined to determine the path of the round and to retrieve it for ballistic examination. Blade injury: When death appears to be the result of sharp force injury, a close examination of all bone surfaces is imperative. Imagine the torso from chin to the pubic bones (the vital area), then picture the subtending bones (vertebrae, sternum, ribs, clavicles, scapulae) painted upon this surface. When the torso is morphed into a round target, and the underlying bones into a bull’s-eye, the latter com- prises about 65 to 75% of the target. In theory, in a fatal blade injury one would expect bone to be marked 152 Forensic dentistry in the majority of such cases. Te extremities, especially the hands and forearms, and occasionally the legs, may bear defensive inju- ries as well. Terefore, all bones should be examined, to the extent possible, before cleaning and again aferward. Care must be taken when macerating remains not to remove or damage the periosteum. Blade marks are ofen seen in this fbrous tissue sheath overlaying undamaged bone cortex. Tese injuries are best viewed in oblique light under low-power magnifcation, or under oblique fuorescence. Defects may be captured for comparison before further cleaning by making a cast with polysiloxane or similar material. However, when a sharp edge is applied to a bone obliquely, microscopic exami- nation will usually reveal a “bar code” efect, resulting from defects in the cutting edge as the blade is applied. As is the case with sof tissue blade injuries, it is unlikely that the defects will yield information about the dimensions of the ofending blade. When the tip of a blade is forced into a bone, it is sometimes pos- sible to determine whether it is backed or sharp on two edges (as in a dagger). Cases involving postmortem dismemberment will usu- ally present several kinds of blade injuries, from knives, manual and power saws, cleavers, and even axes. Careful microscopic examination will usually diferentiate knives from saw blades, and manual saws from circular and reciprocating saws. Further diferentiation between various types of saw blades may also be made microscopically. Tis fnding, far more common in sof tissue, indicates active circu- lation, though hopefully not consciousness, during the removal of the limb. When multiple blade injuries are present, some investiga- tors will create a cut map, i. Tis reporting format is useful in the context of possible witness accounts, and may help in diferen- tiating fatal, nonfatal, and defensive injuries. Finally, in the case of remains outdoors, it is important to distinguish between blade inju- ries and pseudotrauma caused by animals with scissoid mouth parts, e. As in the case of all penetrating injuries, blade or ballistic, it is important to Forensic anthropology 153 examine any garments associated with the remains for defects that may correspond to the injuries. Blunt force injury: Blunt force injuries are the most common form of mechanical trauma. Caused by relatively slow loading rates, they allow bone to deform before failure, producing characteristic dam- age patterns. Because the energy (E) transferred to the bone is half the product of the mass (m) of the object striking it and the square of the velocity with which it is delivered (v2), velocity will make the greatest contribution to the damage observed. Keeping this relation- ship in mind, one can reduce the number of possible scenarios leading to a particular injury. A second important consideration is the area through which the energy is delivered. When examining unidentifed skeletal remains, it is important to remember that some mechanical injuries may be incidental. Tese will usually appear as perimortem injuries, although they do not contribute to death. For example, severe skull or cervical fractures may have been caused by falling down a staircase afer a fatal coronary, or from a utility pole afer a lethal electrical shock. Te author once had the opportunity to examine skeletal material recovered from a collapsed area of a long abandoned historic mine. Tough many of the bones were broken, it was impossible to know whether the two victims had expired from asphyxia, dehydration, or the crushing efects of the collapsing shaf. It is important to consider that force applied to one part of the skeleton may be transferred, causing damage elsewhere. Shock from a hard landing may be transferred through the legs, damaging the bones of the pelvis or spine, and vertical loading of the spine from below has sometimes resulted in ring fractures of the skull base. A blow to the lef gonial angle may cause a hinge fracture of the right mandibular ramus when the head is arrested against an unyielding surface, and the same principle applies in the classic contrecoup skull fracture. Reconstruction of a shattered skull, though time-consuming, may provide information about the number and order of strikes, or reveal a pattern that suggests the nature or class of weapon used. In a recent case, the decedent’s skull was crushed by the right rear wheel of the vehicle from which she “fell. Reassembly of some eighty-fve fragments revealed three suspicious patterned injuries that later proved to have been caused when the victim was struck repeatedly with a socket wrench. It is essential that all fragments be examined carefully for transferred evidence or for a more detailed toolmark analysis.