By E. Mamuk. Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. 2019.
The strength of such models does substitution at the C(2) position with a halogen best buy for cytotec. Reduction of the double bond at the 9 cheap cytotec 200 mcg free shipping,10 position available for in vitro assessment purchase cytotec with paypal, and genetic studies are pos- abolishes hallucinogenic activity. Hydroxylation of C(13), sible with the use of knockout, mutagenesis, and antisense which may occur in vivo, confers a high level of dopami- nucleotide strategies. The weakness of animal models is that nergic potency on ergolines (21). Most interesting is that they cannot provide a direct, reliable method to determine ethylation of LSD at N(6) enhances potency, as determined if or when an animal is hallucinating. Despite this limita- in both animal and human studies. A monoalkyl amide, a tion, drug discrimination paradigms have been useful in diastereomer of chlorobutyl LSD, is at least 50% more po- establishing comparative benchmarks between LSD, mesca- tent than LSD. In ligand binding at 5-HT2, 5-HT1A, D1, line, and other hallucinogens, associating potency data with and D2 receptors, the (R)-2-butylamide substituent is like- binding at specific receptor types, correlating animal poten- wise more potent. Cloning of the 5-HT-2 receptor permit- cies with human data, and describing structure–activity re- ted replacement of aspartate 120 in second transmembrane lationships (10). Sophisticated behavioral studies by Geyer domain with asparagine. Additionally, aspartate 155 is required for ago- prepulse inhibition. Second messenger systems in hallucinogen-responsive receptors represent another promising avenue to unraveling the mechanism of halluci- Neuropharmacology nogens. The close correlation be- promises insights into the mechanisms of perception, mood, tween hallucinogen affinities for the 5-HT2 and 5-HT1C and psychosis. Early studies of LSD in peripheral tissue receptors raises the possibility that the latter may play an implicated serotoninergic receptors in the mechanism of independent or complementary role in hallucinogenic activ- hallucinogenic activity. This is supported by the fact that LSD is an agonist creases brain 5-HT turnover. This effect correlated with at 5-HT1C receptors, as determined by phosphoinositide behavioral changes and the plasma half-life of LSD, was hydrolysis (23). Hirschhorn and Winter (13) showed that rats can dis- Recent Neurophysiologic Studies criminate LSD and mescaline from saline solution. Discrim- ination fell in the presence of serotonin antagonists, More recent electrophysiologic studies of hallucinogens in supporting a 5-HT-agonist mechanism for the action of animal models support the involvement of postsynaptic 5- hallucinogens. The In intracellular recordings from serotoninergic dorsal locus ceruleus, considered a sensory novelty detector in the raphe neurons of the rat brain in vivo, LSD directly inhib- pons, projects widely throughout the brain. Hallucinogens ited firing, but other hallucinogens did not (14). In 1979, indirectly decrease spontaneous activity in the locus ceruleus it was shown that the effects of LSD on cat behavior are by activating GABAA inputs, and they enhance sensory re- dissociated from raphe responses and involve postsynaptic sponses of the locus ceruleus by activating excitatory inputs serotonin activity (15). The same year, Peroutka and Snyder via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors (24). A high density of 5-HT1A autoreceptors was found form cortex, both 5-HT and hallucinogens at 5-HT2A re- on raphe neurons, which explained the direct inhibition of ceptors excite GABAergic interneurons, which then induce this system by LSD (17). Based on the ability of receptor inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (25). In prefrontal cortex, antagonists to block hallucinogen discrimination in ani- the opposite occurs, where the drugs release glutamate and mals, it was proposed that hallucinogens act as agonists at increase excitatory potentials (26). Both 5-HT2A and gluta- postsynaptic 5-HT2 receptors (18). Hallucinogen potency matergic antagonists block this effect. Direct studies of neo- Chapter 108: Psychedelic Drugs 1547 cortical cells suggest that 5-HT2A receptors induce gluta- Human dose–response studies of hallucinogens since mate release by a focal mechanism, not by impulse flow. In such a model, 5-HT itself would Qualls (31), using DMT (N,N-dimethyltryptamine) in antagonize hallucinogens by activating 5-HT1 receptors carefully screened and supervised subjects, were able to de- (14). This model explains the clinical observation that selec- velop a hallucinogen rating scale and measure a number tive serotonin reuptake inhibitors blunt the effects of LSD, of dose-dependent neuroendocrine responses to the drug. Equally importantly, this work demonstrated that halluci- Although the dominant hypothesis of hallucinogenic ac- nogen experimentation could be safe as well as informative. Finally, functional interaction is Acute Adverse Psychiatric Effects of likely to occur between receptor types and subtypes. Hallucinogens Clinically, the flow of thoughts, feelings, and perceptions Recent Human Studies of that constitute a hallucinogenic experience can, on occasion, Indolalkylamine Hallucinogens result in panic. Thus, a man who was using LSD while driving tried to crash the vehicle when he saw his compan- The extraordinary mental effects of LSD described in 1943 ion turn into a giant lizard (32). The treatment for halluci- by Hofmann prompted hope in the following two decades nogen-induced panic is an oral benzodiazepine. The utter that a powerful therapeutic tool was at hand. The drug was efficacy and rapidity of the response to this class of medica- used experimentally to treat neuroses, childhood schizo- tions implicates GABA receptors as the neuromodulators phrenia, sociopathy, and alcoholism, and as a comfort to of this hallucinogenic experience in humans. Methodologies were inadequate by contemporary standards, and no treatment stands unambig- uously as effective. In recent years, renewed interest in hallu- Hallucinogen Persisting Perception cinogen research has been sparked by the emergence of posi- Disorder tron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance Hallucinogens sometimes appear to alter psychological imaging (MRI) technologies. For example, PET studies by functions years after drug use (32). Surveys among college students reveal lism in healthy volunteers, which suggests that the behav- that more than 40% of those using LSD report minor spon- ioral effects of psilocybin involve the frontal cortex (Fig. Similar imaging work has been done with the phe- (32). Less common are patients who report persistent, con- nethylamine mescaline. Positron emission tomography with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose before and after a 15- or 20-mg dose of psilocybin in healthy volunteers. Psy- chotomimetic doses of psilocybin were found to pro- duce a global increase in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose, with significant and most marked in- creases in the frontomedial, frontolateral, anterior cingulate, and temporomedial cortex. The increase correlated positively with psychotic symptoms. Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psycho- pathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis. Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder appears to Other drugs in this class include ketamine and dizocilpine be a permanent, or slowly reversible, disorder of disinhibi- maleate (MK-801). PCP was first synthesized in the 1950s, tion of visual processing, which suggests the defective sen- when it was marketed as a surgical anesthetic under the sory gating described by Braff and Geyer (34). Initially widely used in surgical settings, this comes from psychophysical experiments in which visual it was withdrawn in 1965 because of its association with a signals in subjects with HPPD persisted significantly longer variety of behavioral disturbances, including agitation, dys- than in LSD-naıve controls (35). Quantitative electrophysi-¨ phoria, delirium, hallucinations, paranoia, rage, and vio- ology (qEEG) in this population shows abnormalities in lence (40). In approximately half of patients who received visually evoked potentials as long as 26 years after last LSD PCP, a psychotic syndrome developed that sometimes per- use, consistent with visual disinhibition (36).
Renal insult 100 Cumulative trend M ean 80 60 ARF Outcome 40 20 16 13 13 20 11 11 911 1110 9 10 Number 6 5 7 5 7 8 5 5 6 5 5 4 78 6 5 6 8 of 10 2 331 3 4 2 3 2 4 publi- 0 cations Prognosis 1951 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 1990 Year FIGURE 8-23 M ortality trends in acute renal failure (ARF) cheap cytotec 100mcg without a prescription. This figure shows the evolution of mortality during a 40-year period cheap 100 mcg cytotec, starting in 1951 order cytotec online now. The graphic was elaborated after reviewing the outcome of 32,996 ARF FIGURE 8-22 patients reported in 258 published papers. As can be appreciated, Ideally, prognosis should be established as the problem , the episode mortality rate increases slowly but constantly during this follow-up, of acute renal failure (ARF), starts. Correct prognostic estim ation despite theoretically better availability of therapeutic armamentarium gives the real outcom e for a patient or group of patients as precisely (mainly antibiotics and vasoactive drugs), deeper knowledge of dialy- as possible. In this ideal scenario, this fact is illustrated by giving sis techniques, and wider access to intensive care facilities. This the sam e surface area for the concepts of outcom e and prognosis. A complementary explanation could be that the patients treat- ed now are usually older, sicker, and more likely to be treated more aggressively. This can be Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment Score (SOFA) are those done using either general intensive care unit (ICU) score systems or that seem most suitable for this purpose. APACHE II used to be most methods developed specifically for ARF patients. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) O n the other hand, at least 17 specific ARF prognostic m ethods [21,22], Simplified Physiologic Score (SAPS)[23,24], M ortality have been developed [20,30]. The figure shows only those that Prediction M odel (M PM ) [25,26], and Organ System Failure scores have been used after their publication, plus one recently pub- (OSF). M ultiple Organ Dysfunction Score (M ODS) and lished system which is not yet in general use. The best curve com es from the APACH E III m ethod, which has an area under the RO C curve of 0. B, Four RO C curves corresponding to prognostic m ethods 60 60 specifically developed for ARF patients are depicted. The best curve in this panel APACHE II com es from the Liaño m ethod for ARF 40 APACHE III 40 prognosis. Its area under the curve is SAPS Rasmussen SAPS-R 0. APACH E— Acute 20 20 Liaño Physiology and Chronic H ealth SAPS-E Lohr SS Schaefer Evaluation, (II second version; III M PM third version); SAPS— Sim plified 0 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 Acute Physiology Score; SAPS-R— A 1- Specificity, % B 1- Specificity, % SAPS-reduced; SAPS-E— SAPS- Extended; SS— Sickness Score; M PM — M ortality Prediction M odel; FIGURE 8-25 RO C curve— Receiving O perating Com parison of prognostic m ethods for acute renal failure (ARF) by RO C curve analy- Characteristic curve; SE— Standard sis. A m ethod is better when its RO C-curve m oves to the upper left square deter- Error. M ost of the episodes of ARF resolved in the first month of evolution. Seventy-eight percent of the patients with ARF who died did so within 2 weeks after the renal insult. FIGURE 8-26 Similarly, 60% of survivors had recovered renal function at that time. Individual factors that have been associated with acute renal failure After 30 days, 90% of the patients had had a final resolution of the (ARF) outcom e. M ost of these innum erable variables have been ARF episode, one way or the other. Patients who finally lost renal related to an adverse outcom e, whereas few (nephrotoxicity as a function and needed to be included in a chronic periodic dialysis cause of ARF and early treatm ent) have been associated with m ore program usually had severe forms of glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, favorable prognosis. For a deep review of variables studied with or systemic disease. N SAID— nonsteroidal anti- inflam m atory drugs; BUN — blood urea nitrogen. Persistent hypotension Assisted repiration 80 100 100 80 80 80 60 69 60 60 P<0. The initial 20 20 clinical condition observed in ARF patients is shown. O liguria: urine output of less than 400 m L per day; hypotension: systolic 0 0 blood pressure lower than 100 m m H g for at least 10 hours per Yes No Yes No day independent of the use of vasoactive drugs; jaundice: serum bilirubin level higher than 2 m g/dL; com a: Glasgow com a score of 5 or less. The presence of these factors is associated with poorer FIGURE 8-29 outcom e (see Fig. The presence of an unfavorable factor was significantly associated with higher m ortality. Com a patients had a Glasgow com a score of 5 or lower. Sedation refers to the use of this kind of 80 77 treatm ent, prim arily in patients with assisted respiration. Both situ- ations are associated with significantly higher m ortality (P<0. The first includes factors that affect the 2 Original patient: 1) previous health condition; 2) initial disease— usually, disease the direct or indirect (eg, treatm ents) cause of kidney failure; 3) the kind and severity of kidney injury. W hile 1 is a conditioning elem ent, 2 and 3 trigger the second group of factors: the response of the patient to the insult. If this response includes a system ic inflam m atory response syndrom e (SIRS) like that usually seen in intensive care patients (eg, sepsis, pancreatitis, burns), a m ultiple 1 3 organ dysfunction syndrom e (M O DS) frequently appears and Previous health Kind and severity consequently outcom e is associated with a higher fatality rate condition of kidney insult (thick line). O n the contrary, if SIRS does not develop and isolated ARF predom inates, death (thin line, right) is less frequent than survival (thick line). Depending on 2 and 3 ARF in a M ODS Isolated complex ARF Death Depending on: Recovery *2,3, & 1 Recovery *No. The ISI was published in its second version in 1993. N ephrotoxic indicates an ARF of that origin; the other variables ISI=0. Each clinical variable takes a value of 1 or A 55-year-old man was seen because of oliguria following pancreatic surgery. His ISI was calculated The param eters are recorded when the nephrologist sees the patient as follows: the first tim e. Calculation is easy: only a card with the equation ISI=0. FIGURE 8-33 ATN Acute GN O utcom e of acute renal failure (ARF). Long-term outcom e of ARF 66 No recovery 1111 has been studied only in som e series of intrinsic or parenchym atous 24 No recovery 3131 ARF. The figure shows the different long-term prognoses for intrin- Partial recovery 3232 47 sic ARF of various causes. Left, The percentages of recovery rate of 35 renal function 1 year after the acute episode of renal failure. Right, Partial recovery The situation of renal function 5 years after the ARF episode. Two thirds of the patients with acute tubule necrosis (ATN ) recovered norm al renal function, 31% showed partial 1 yr 5 yr 1 yr 5 yr recovery, and 6% experienced no functional recovery.
Application of shape analysis of the temporal and prefrontal lobes of schizo- automated MRI volumetric measurement techniques to the ven- phrenic patients: a magnetic resonance image study cheap cytotec 100mcg mastercard. J Neuropsy- tricular system in schizophrenics and normals buy cytotec from india. A follow-up magnetic try in schizophrenia by high dimensional brain mapping discount cytotec 200 mcg amex. Proc resonance imaging study of schizophrenia: relationship of neuro- Natl Acad Sci USA 1998;95:11406–11411. MRI white matter Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998;55:145–152. Compromised white Chapter 55: Structural MRI Studies in Schizophrenia 771 matter tract integrity in schizophrenia inferred from diffusion thalamus in never-medicated patients with schizophrenia. Image processing for Buchsbaum MS, Yang S, Hazlett E, et al. Ventricular volume and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. In: Proceedings of asymmetry in schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia Second International Conference on Medical Image Computing and assessed with magnetic resonance imaging. Schizophr Res 1997; Computer-Assisted Interventions, Cambridge, UK: 1999:441–452. Uncinate fasciculus Casanova MF, Zito M, Goldberg T, et al. Shape distortion of the in schizophrenia: a diffusion tensor study. American Psychiatric corpus callosum of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophre- Association New Research Abstracts, 2000. Increase in caudate nuclei volumes of first-episode schizophrenic patients taking anti- Table 55. Caudate nuclei volumes Andreasen NC, Ehrhardt JC, Swayze II VW, et al. Magnetic reso- in schizophrenic patients treated with typical antipsychotics or nance imaging of the brain in schizophrenia: the pathophysiologic clozapine. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1990; Colombo C, Abbruzzese M, Livian S, et al. Psychiatry Res Neu- Andreasen NC, Arndt S, Swayze II VW, et al. Regional brain abnor- Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 1994;243:244–248. Reduction in temporal lobe J Psychiatry 1990;147:1457–1462. Volumes of ventricular system pared to normal controls. MRI findings in the medial episode schizophrenic patients. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992a;49: temporal lobe structures in schizophrenia. Increased prevalence of the Becker T, Elmer K, Schneider F, et al. Confirmation of reduced cavum septum pellucidum in magnetic resonance scans and post- temporal limbic structure volume on magnetic resonance imaging mortem brains of schizophrenic patients. Psychiatry Res: Neuroim- in male patients with schizophrenia. Abnormalities of the septum Bilder RM, Wu H, Bogerts B, et al. Absence of regional hemispheric pellucidum on MR scans in first-episode schizophrenic patients. Am J Psychiatry Am J Neuroradiology 1992c;13:835–840. Magnetic reso- DeLisi LE, Hoff AL, Schwartz JE, et al. Brain morphology in first- nance imaging in schizophrenia: Altered brain morphology associ- episode schizophrenic-like psychotic patients: a quantitative mag- ated with P300 abnormalities and eye tracking dysfunction. The timing of brain morpho- Bogerts B, Ashtari M, Degreef G, et al. Reduced temporal limbic logical changes in schizophrenia and their relationship to clinical structure volumes on magnetic resonance images in first episode outcome. Increased prevalence of cavum Bogerts B, Lieberman JA, Ashtari M, et al. Psychiatry Res: Neuroimag volumes and psychopathology in chronic schizophrenia. Asymmetries in the superior Bornstein RA, Schwarzkopf SB, Olson SC, et al. Third-ventricle en- temporal lobe in male and female first-episode schizophrenic pa- largement and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia. Biol tients: measures of the planum temporale and superior temporal Psychiatry 1992;31:954–961. Brain morphology and DeLisi LE, Sakuma M, Tew W, et al. Schizophrenia as a chronic schizophrenia: a magnetic resonance imaging study of limbic, pre- active brain process: a study of progressive brain structural change frontal cortex, and caudate structures. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1992; subsequent to the onset of schizophrenia. Structural abnormalities DeQuardo JR, Bookstein FL, Green WD, et al. Spatial relationships in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1993;150: of neuroanatomic landmarks in schizophrenia. PET and MRI of the Di Michele V, Rossi A, Stratta P, et al. Neuropsychological and clini- 772 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress cal correlates of temporal lobe anatomy in schizophrenia. Acta nance imaging study of patients with schizophrenia. Event-related potential Kelsoe JR, Cadet JL, Pickar D, et al. Quantitative neuroanatomy in abnormalities correlate with structural brain alterations and clini- schizophrenia: a controlled magnetic resonance imaging study.
It is clearly important the frst few years of Seguro Popular purchase cytotec us, and taking to find the right mix of incentives and regula- advantage of its phased roll-out discount cytotec 100mcg otc, it was important tions that affect both the supply of and demand to assess the impact of the intervention on health for services so that CCTs can improve the qual- and fnancial expenditure (70) generic cytotec 200mcg fast delivery. Study design In a cluster randomized study, 100 pairs of health Main conclusions facility catchment areas (“health clusters”) were ■ CCT schemes serve as fnancial incentives randomly assigned to receive either the inter- for increasing the demand for and utili- vention or the control. Te intervention, Seguro zation of health services by reducing or Popular, provided a package of benefts that eliminating fnancial barriers to access. Tere were also service utilization which leads to improved funds to cover catastrophic health expenditures health outcomes. In health clus- ters receiving the intervention, there was a cam- paign to persuade every family to enrol in Seguro Case-study 11 Popular. In the matched control cluster families received the usual health care which they had Insurance in the provision to pay for (14). Te main outcomes were details of accessible and afordable of expenditures which were classifed as out-of- pocket expenditures for all health services, while health services: a randomized catastrophic expenditures were defned as health controlled trial in Mexico spending greater than 30% of capacity to pay (measured in terms of income). The need for research In 2003, Mexico initiated a new set of health Summary of fndings reforms which aimed to provide health coverage In the intervention clusters, out-of-pocket to approximately 50 million people who were expenses and catastrophic expenditures were without any form of fnancial protection for 23% lower than in the control clusters. Before 2003, the right to health care was those households within intervention clusters an employment beneft that was restricted to the that signed up toSeguro Popular(44% on average), salaried workforce. A large majority of the poor catastrophic expenditures were reduced by 59%. Surprisingly, and contrary to previous observational studies, Afordable health care in ageing there was no substantial efect of Seguro Popular populations: forecasting changes on the quality of care (such as improving access in public health expenditure to and use of medical facilities or reducing drug stock-outs) or on increasing coverage for chronic in fve European countries illness. Tese fndings might be explained by the short assessment period of 10 months (71, 72). The need for research Although these results are encouraging, further As the average age of European populations research is needed to ascertain the long-term becomes older, a larger number of people will efects of the programme. In addi- Te project design for assessing the efects of tion, a growing number of people will sufer Seguro Popularproved robust and showed that the from several morbidities at the same time. In August observations have generated concern that public 2012, within 10 years of launching the scheme, spending on health care in ageing populations 52 million previously uninsured Mexicans had will become unafordable. Taking into account coverage with a range of insurance schemes, Study design approximately 98% of 113 million people in Using published data on forecasts of popula- Mexico had fnancial risk protection in 2012, tion ageing, and on current health expenditure and Mexico has celebrated the achievement of by age, Rechel and co-workers calculated the universal health coverage (70, 73). Nevertheless, expected annual changes in per capita health further experimental research is needed with a expenditure associated with ageing over the longer period of follow-up in order to measure period 2010–2060 (74). Tey assumed that the efects on access to, and use of, health facili- health expenditure per person in each age group ties and health outcomes. Tis needs to be done would be constant over the 50-year period, and not only in Mexico but also in other countries that the unit costs of health care would also planning public health policy reforms. Te analysis was carried out for fve countries of the European Union (EU) Main conclusions – the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, the ■ In Mexico, implementation of a public Netherlands and Slovenia. Te annual ■ Seguro Popular resulted in a 23% reduction increases in per capita expenditure, calculated in out-of-pocket expenses and catastrophic as means for fve-year periods, were consistent expenditures, with benefts reaching across the fve countries. In the to contribute to the achievement of univer- Netherlands, for example, the increase in spending sal health coverage in other countries. Projected changes in per capita public health expenditure associated with ageing in fve European countries, 2010–2060 Note: Points are annual average percentage increases, calculated as fve-year means, derived from data on projected popula- tion ageing and on current patterns of health expenditure by age. Reproduced, by permission of the publisher, from Rechel et al. Furthermore, although Towards universal health coverage older people are major consumers of health care, Te common assumption that population ageing other factors – notably technological develop- will drive future health expenditure to unafordable ments – have a greater efect on total health care levels is not supported by this analysis. A study carried present some challenges for health and wel- out for the European Commission forecast moder- fare if, for instance, a declining fraction of ate increases in public-sector health spending due to the population has to bear the rising costs of ageing in the EU, growing from 6. If, with increases in life expec- challenges are not insuperable. The measures tancy, the proportion of life in good health does not that can be taken include: promoting good change, then public expenditure on health care is health throughout life, thereby increasing the expected to increase by only 0. A large proportion of lifetime tems so they are better able to cope with the 83 Research for universal health coverage needs of older people; and increasing the par- research cycle. In general, randomized controlled ticipation of older people in the labour force trials and trials using a minimization method (74, 88). However, judging annual increases in health expenditure due the efectiveness of interventions during rou- to ageing are less than 1% and falling in fve tine practice is more difcult because there are European countries. Nevertheless, ■ While the number of older people sufering operational questions relating to stafng needs, chronic diseases and disability is expected infrastructure and commodity supply chains to grow, the costs of health care become can ofen be answered by a process of “learning substantial only in the last year of life. Tis long-term social care and welfare in appears to be the dominant method of address- European countries must adapt to popula- ing health insurance reforms in Africa and Asia, tion ageing. Conclusions: general lessons In the face of health emergencies, some experimental designs carry the disadvantage drawn from specifc examples of being costly, slow and logistically complex, Te 12 case-studies presented in this chapter, whereas observational studies can be done ranging from the control of malaria to the provi- quickly and cheaply – yet are potentially at risk sion of health insurance, are examples of research of giving misleading conclusions. However, there that illuminate the path to universal health are instances in which that risk is worth taking coverage. Tey address a diversity of questions and results in positive outcomes. Tey employ ing to the enormous demand for antiretroviral a range of research methods – quantitative and therapy for HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, qualitative evaluations, observational and case− observational research on task shifing and on control studies, non-randomized intervention the decentralization of health services yielded studies, randomized controlled trials, and sys- important data that could inform policy and tematic reviews and meta-analyses. Tey show practice before evidence became available from the potential benefts of having evidence from controlled experiments (78, 79). However, recent multiple sources, and explore the link between successful eforts to modify and apply formal experimental design and strength of inference. And they show how research delivery) suggest that experimental rigour need works at the interface with policy and practice. First, the most appropriate research Second, the continuous cycle of asking and methods – those that fnd the best compromise answering questions implies that the implemen- between cost, time and validity – vary along the tation of research solutions (the best answers at 84 Chapter 3 How research contributes to universal health coverage any given moment) can be efectively monitored. Tird, the goal of this report is to promote Fifh, although the 12 examples in this research that makes the coverage of health inter- chapter relate to a wide range of conditions of ventions truly universal. Access to health ser- ill-health and methods for studying them, the vices cannot be the privilege of those who live examples inevitably leave some gaps. In 2009 the topics missing from this chapter are no less alone, there were 31 armed conficts worldwide important than those that are covered, such as (82). Tese circumstances demand imaginative fnding ways to prepare for pandemics, to miti- methods for the provision of health care. In this gate environmental hazards, or to assess the context, telemedicine is an example of an ena- health benefts of agriculture (Box 2. Finally, the examples in this chapter point Fourth, while some of the case-studies to the advantages of creating a structured in this chapter show how research can influ- system for carrying out research in low- and ence practice, health policy and action are middle-income countries, and of deepening not determined by evidence alone (Box 2. To advance this cause, ings are not used include: the research ques- Chapter 4 describes the architecture of systems tion is not relevant to the problems faced by that can effectively carry out research for uni- health workers or policy-makers; the research versal health coverage. Health research classifcation systems − current approaches and future recommendations. Net benefts: a multicountry analysis of observational data examining associations between insecticide- treated mosquito nets and health outcomes.
Metformin 750 mg daily can assist in weight reduction (Shulman et al purchase discount cytotec on-line, 2014) purchase generic cytotec line. When diabetes is anticipated (clozapine and olanzapine in particular) the weight is to be monitored and laboratory measures (eg fasting blood glucose) are indicated cytotec 100mcg amex. When hyperlipidemia is anticipated (clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine) serum cholesterol and triglycerides are to be monitored. When QTc prolongation is anticipated (ziprasidone, particularly), ECG monitoring is recommended. In cases of increased cardiac risk (known heart disease, syncope, family history of early sudden death) special care, including regular ECT is recommended. Myocarditis has been associated with clozapine and clozapine clinics have specialized screening procedures. Individual SGAs As in all branches of medicine, if some disorders cannot be controlled with standard doses of a particular agent, first the dose is increased judiciously, and if the desired result remains evasive, another agent is trialled. Fortunately we have a range of atypical antipsychotics; while they have some similar actions, they come from a range chemical classes, and all have particular advantages. A series of trials may be necessary for the best possible outcome. However, it has a range of serious, potentially fatal side effects. Thus, clozapine is reserved for severe otherwise unresponsive psychosis, and must be managed by specialized clinics which conduct regular blood and other medical tests. Clozapine is unique in causing neutropenia (potentially fatal) in 1-2% of patients. Other side-effects include significant weight gain, hypotension and tachycardia. Hypersalivation (unknown with the FGAs) can be troublesome with clozapine (and rarely with some other atypicals, such as olanzapine). This is a formidable array of side-effects, but the antipsychotic benefits are substantial. Risperidone Risperidone is an effective antipsychotic. At high doses (8 mg and above) it loses some of its advantages over FGAs, insofar, as acute EPS readily appear. A major disadvantage is the elevation of prolactin levels. A preparation which dissolves in the mouth is available. Risperidone has an advantage over some other SGAs as an IMI depot (long-acting) preparation is available. This can be administered once per fortnight during the maintenance phase, somewhat reducing compliance problems. Paliperidone Paliperidone is the active metabolite of risperidone, which was released when the patent of the parent chemical was about to expire. There is less weight gain, but more EPS problems, and the elevation of prolactin remains problematic. The dosing strategy is simpler, a single daily dose is possible. Recently a paliperidone depot has become available which need only be repeated monthly (a great advantage over 2/52 injection). Olanzapine Olanzapine is an effective antipsychotic which has gained acceptance as a mood stabilizer (used in the prophylaxis of mood disorder; Tohen et al, 2005). It has a pharmacological action and side-effect profile similar to clozapine (except, it is not associated with blood dyscrasia). The most troublesome side-effects are weight gain and sedation. The risks of diabetes and hyperlipidemia need to be monitored. An occasional side-effect, which is seen more regularly with clozapine, is hypersalivation. Olanzapine does not elevate prolactin to a significant degree. The sedating/calming effect of olanzapine is useful in acute disturbance. Olanzapine has an advantage of over some other SGAs in being available in an IMI form for acute Pridmore S. A preparation which dissolves in the mouth is available. A long-acting depot form is available but because physiological response is variable, the patient must be observed for 3 hours following every injection (which is proving to be a disincentive). Quetiapine Quetiapine is an effective antipsychotic which has a receptor binding profile similar to clozapine, but with relatively lower affinity for all receptors. The side-effect profile is favourable, 75% of respondents denying any side-effects (Hellewell et al, 1999). Sedation and hypotension are reported, especially during the commencement phase. Weight gain, and the risk of diabetes and hyperlipidemia need to be considered. Quetiapine has little affinity for muscarinic receptors so that blurred vision and difficulty with micturition are rarely problems. The rate of EPS symptoms is similar to placebo and there is no significant elevation of prolactin. Amisulpride Amisulpride is a useful antipsychotic which has effects (potent antagonist) only at D2 and D3 receptors, and no effect on serotonin receptors. Thus, it could be considered an FGA, which was released in the age of the SGAs. At recommended doses it appears to be selective for limbic (rather than extra-pyramidal system) receptors (Xiberas et al, 2001). Unfortunately, when higher doses are required, EPS side-effects may become a problem. Amisulpride is less likely to cause weight gain than the other SGAs, but it produces robust elevation of prolactin levels, thus breast development and lactation in both men and women and amenorrhoea in women may be bothersome side effects (Leucht et al, 2013). Some guidelines list amisulpride as benign with respect to QTc prolongation and sudden death (Hasan et al, 2012). It has low sedation effects, and discontinuation rate, suggesting it is well tolerated. Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is unusual - rather than an antagonist of dopamine receptors, it appears to be a high affinity partial agonist at presynaptic D2 receptors and an antagonist at postsynaptic D2 receptors. It has little affinity for D3, D4 and D1-like receptors, and its affinity for 5HT-2A receptors is low.